XPS, Chemical Mapping

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Ultraviolet photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) is used to analyze the surface chemistry of a material. XPS spectra are obtained by illuminating the sample surface with monochromatic X-rays and eventually measuring the photo emitted electrons.

XPS basics

In 1905 Albert Einstein received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his quantum mechanical interpretation of the photoelectric effect. Based on the results of Heinrich Hertz and Max Planck about the nature of light being an electromagnetic wave and about the general existence of discrete energy portions, nowadays named “quantum”, this has been a big step for basic science. At this time nobody knew, that this will evolve into the most important method for non-destructive surface chemical analysis. To reach this understanding the development of energy dispersive electron analyzers had been necessary. Thus it took several decades until Kai Siegbahn developed and experimentally realized the first experiment of this kind in the late 1960s, again resulting in a Nobel Prize in Physics. By excitation of electrons from solid samples using characteristic X-rays and detecting the number of photoelectrons in dependence of their kinetic energies it became possible to use the element specific electron energies to derive the chemical
composition of sample surfaces without destroying them. He named the method Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, or in short ESCA. The global success of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a result of the development of methods for reliable and precise quantification of ESCA data with an elemental detection limit of <1% in the uppermost surface layers. Elemental chemical mapping is possible by energy filtered imaging or mapping of the respective surface.

Back to top

RELATED PRODUCTS

75
Back to top

APPLICATION NOTES

XR 50 X-Ray Source with Boron Nitride Anode
Fine Focus option, anode geometry discussion
download PDF
Lifetime tests of the PHOIBOS Extended Range Channel Electron Multiplier (CEM)
Experiments on CEM Lifetime
download PDF
Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy
Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy experiments were performed in an experimental station consisting of an analysis and apreparation chamber. The preparation chamber is used for substrate cleaning, as well as for the preparation and magnetization of ferromagnetic thin films.
download PDF
Monochromated XPS of Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon (111)
The high resolution capability of the PHOIBOS 150 MCD-9 analyzer and the FOCUS 500 monochromator was demonstrated by XPS measurements on H terminated Silicon (111).
download PDF
Monochromated XPS of Silicon (111)
The high resolution capability of the PHOIBOS 150 MCD-9 analyzer and the FOCUS 500 monochromator was demonstrated by XPS measurements on GaSe terminated Silicon (111).
download PDF
FOCUS 500 Resolution on Ag
This application note shows the Fermi edge of a polycrystalline silver sample at room temperature and the Ag 3d5/2 peak . The measurements have been performed with a FOCUS 500 x-ray monochromator and a PHOIBOS 150 MCD-9 hemispherical analyzer using the Medium Area mode.
download PDF
Monochromatic XPS Performance with insulating polymeric materials
The high resolution capability of the PHOIBOS 150 MCD-9 analyzer, the FOCUS 500 monochromator and the FG 15/40 flood gun was demonstrated by XPS measurements on a PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) surface.
download PDF
Fine Focus Scan-able Ion Source IQE 12/38
Applications of a focussed ion source
download PDF
Defined Area XPS with the PHOIBOS Analyzer using the Iris Aperture
In many applications photoelectrons emitted by the sample holder can lead to incorrect results. To suppress these photoelectrons, the PHOIBOS analyzer has a variable iris aperture at the front of the lens. By closing the iris photoelectrons from the surrounding can be eliminated.
download PDF
PHOIBOS Analyzer Performance in defined area XPS
The XPS performance of the PHOIBOS 100 MCD-5 and PHOIBOS 150 MCD-9 analyzer was determined using a Ag/Cu edge with a broad-illuminating X-ray source (Mg Kα, 300 W).
download PDF
Spin Resolved Photoemission
The SPECS hemispherical analyzer PHOIBOS 150 can be equipped with a mini-Mott Spin Detector for electron spin resolved data acquisition. The detector allows the parallel acquisition of spin resolved and non-spin resolved data.
download PDF
Linearity of the PHOIBOS Channel Electron Multiplier (CEM) detection system
We have measured for a PHOIBOS SCD analyzer the count rates as a function of the Auger electron beam current. For the analysis, standard and extended dynamic range CEMs were used.
download PDF