Coatings & Thin Films
Thin films are used in many applications, especially in device technology in semicoductor industry. XPS and HAXPES can help to characterize the chemical composition of surfaces and interfaces, while LEEM, PEEM and SPM can measure the structure of surfaces. A correlation to the electronic properties, that can be measured by UPS or ARPES, helps to correlate device performance to materials properties in order to optimize materials choice and combinations.
Coatings and platings are widely used in optics manufacturing and metal refinement as they optimize the surface properties of materials to make them harder, stronger and more durable. The coatings are thin films which interact with the substrate on one side and the gaseous or liquid Environment on the other. NAP-XPS can analyse the chemical composition and reactivity of coatings.