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Hemispherical Energy Analyzer with 2D CMOS Detector for XPS, ARPES, ISS and LEISS with 150 mm Mean Radius

The PHOIBOS 150 hemispherical energy analyzer is the state-of-the-art analysis solution for photoelectron spectroscopy. This analyzer can be operated in all relevant analysis modes, such as ARPES, XPS, UPS, as well as AES, ISS and LEISS. Its design and the modular supplementary hardware makes this analyzer the most versatile PES analyzer in the market.

With a 2D CMOS detector is shows outstanding performance in countrate, linearity and a true pule counting mechanism. It combines a state of the art lens system with a proven hemipshere design for highest transmission and resolution. The analyzer can be operated in transmission (XPS/UPS), angular resolved (ARPES) and magnification mode (slab imaging).

The energy analyzer sectionis equipped with 8 customizable entrance and 3 exit slits. For highest energy resolution the entrance slit can be chosen down to 50 µm, providing achievable energy resolution better than 1.8 meV. The analyzer comes with a highly stable power supply, the HSA 3500 plus, for best performance in a wide kinetic energy range.

A classical CCD camera detection system is available on request.


  • High Performance Analyzer for XPS, ARPES, AES, ISS and LEIS
  • 150 mm Mean Radius
  • Energy resolution better than 1.8 meV
  • Angular Resolution better than 0.1°
  • 2D MCP Chevron Detector with CMOS (or CCD)
  • Double µ-Metal Shielding




Energy Resolution

< 1.8 meV

Angular Resolution

< 0.1°



Acceptance Angle

±15°, ±7°, ±4° and ±3°

Lateral Resolution

< 35 µm

Smallest Acceptance Spot

100 µm

XPS Count Rates UHV

> 0.5 Mcps @ 0.85 eV and > 1.5 Mcps @ 1.00 eV FWHM

Detector Channels

1285x730 (with Channel Binning)

Kinetic Energy Range

0-3500 eV

Pass Energies

0-550 eV Continously Adjustable

Energy Dispersion


Lens Modes

Transmission Mode, Angular Resolved Mode, Magnification (Lateral Resolved) Mode

Measurement Modes

Snapshot Mode, Sweeping Mode, Fixed Energy Mode


2D CMOS Detector


8 entrance and 3 exit slits and iris aperture

Energy Window

13% of Pass Energy


HSA 3500 +

Working Pressure

10-11 to 10-7 mbar

Working Distance

40 mm

Mounting Flange

DN100CF (6" OD)

Magnetic Shielding

Double µ-Metal Shielding

Electric Isolation

> 10 keV


Photoelectron spectroscopy with UVLS and TMM 304
Photoelectron spectroscopy with UVLS and TMM 304
Angle-integrated and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were performed using the SPECS UVLS ultraviolet-light source in combination with the toroidal-mirror monochromator SPECS TMM304, which was equipped with two cassettes of optical elements in order utilize the HeI and XeI emission lines with photon energies of hν=21.22eV and hν=8.437eV,respectively.
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Quantum Size Effects in uncoupled Al layers on graphitized SiC
Quantum Size Effects in uncoupled Al layers on graphitized SiC
track Quantum well states, measure 2D band structure, parallel component of wave vector, 2D spectrometer use
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Measurements of the Surface State of Au (111)
Measurements of the Surface State of Au (111)
The band structure of the (111) surface of Au was measured by high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiments were performed using a SPECS UV 10/35 source, which has an energy resolution of about 2 meV and a spot size of about 1.5 mm diameter. The photon energy for all measurements was 21.23 eV (He I).
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Measurements of the Surface State of Cu (111)
Measurements of the Surface State of Cu (111)
The band structure of the (111) surface of Cu was measured by high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiments were performed using a VG UV source, which has an energy resolution of about 2 meV and a spot size of about 1.5 mm diameter. The photon energy for all measurements was 21.23 eV (He I).
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Fermi-edge of a single crystal TiTe2 sample at low temperature
Fermi-edge of a single crystal TiTe2 sample at low temperature
The Fermi-edge of a single crystal TiTe2sample was measured at low temperature. The diode closest to the sample read 12 K. A sample temperature of 17 K was estimated. The data was taken with a PHOIBOS 150 CCD analyzer at 3 eV pass energy and with 0.2 mm slit width.
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Band Structure of Crystalline Graphite Layers on SiC (0001)
Band Structure of Crystalline Graphite Layers on SiC (0001)
The band structure of crystalline graphite layers on the (0001) surface of SiC was measured by high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiments were performed using a SPECS UV source 10-35, which has an energy resolution of about 2 meV and a spot size of about 0.6 mm in diameter. The photon energy for all measurements were 40.81 eV (He II).
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High Angular Resolution Data from the Band Structure of Thin Layers of Indium on Si(111)
High Angular Resolution Data from the Band Structure of Thin Layers of Indium on Si(111)
The band structure of thin layers of indium on Si(111) was measured with ARPES. Due to electron confinement in the direction perpendicular to the surface, quantum well states (QWS) are formed. The experiments were performed at the BESSY II 10 m NIM beamline at the U125/2 undulator, which has an energy resolution of less than 1 meV, and a small spot size.
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Cross Section through the Brillouin Zone of Pb 2D Quantum Well State Bands
Cross Section through the Brillouin Zone of Pb 2D Quantum Well State Bands
Examining unexpected properties of Pb, a free electron metal
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Overlayer Quantum Well States
Overlayer Quantum Well States
Angle-resolved one-photon photoemission was used to investigate angular resolved photoemission from Ag overlayers on Cu(111).
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Resolving Power of the PHOIBOS Energy Analyzer Series
Resolving Power of the PHOIBOS Energy Analyzer Series
The line width of Xe and other rare gas levels using the SPECS gas cell UGC 10 and the SPECS UV-light source UVS 10/35 has been measured. The special geometry of the cell includes space charge compensation electrodes to demonstrate the ultimate energy resolution of the PHOIBOS analyzers.
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Ultimate energy resolution of the PHOIBOS Energy Analyzer series
Ultimate energy resolution of the PHOIBOS Energy Analyzer series
We have measured the line width of the Xe 5p3/2gas line using the SPECS gas cell UGC 10 and the SPECS UV-light source UVS 300. The special geometry of the cell includes space charge compensation electrodes to demonstrate the ultimate energy resolution of the PHOIBOS analyzers together with the 2D-CCD Imaging Detector.
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PHOIBOS 150 2D-CCD Wide Angle Mode in 2PPE
PHOIBOS 150 2D-CCD Wide Angle Mode in 2PPE
These notes describe the application of the angular resolving wide angle lens mode (WAM) in two-photon-photoemission spectroscopy (2PPE).
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This Note shows the one- and two-photon photoemission signal of the Cu(111) surface state at 300 K for the different angular resolved lens modes of the PHOIBOS analyzer at different pass energies Ep. The surface has been analyzed using a PHOIBOS 150 analyzer with the 2D CCD Detector.
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  1. (2023) High-energy photoemission final states beyond the free-electron approximation

    Three-dimensional (3D) electronic band structure is fundamental for understanding a vast diversity of physical phenomena in solid-state systems, including topological phases, interlayer interactions in van der Waals materials, dimensionality-driven phase transitions, etc.  Interpretation of ARPES data in terms of 3D electron dispersions is commonly based on the free-electron approximation for the  photoemissionfinal states. Our soft-X-ray ARPES data on Ag metal reveals, however, that even at high excitation energies thefinal states can be a way more complex, incorporating several Bloch waves withdifferent out-of-plane momenta. Such multibandfinal states manifest themselves as a complex structure and added broadening of the spectral peaksfrom 3D electron states. We analyse the origins of this phenomenon, and trace
    it to other materials such as Si and GaN. Ourfindings are essential for accurate determination of the 3D band structure over a wide range of materials andexcitation energies in the ARPES experiment.

    V. N. Strocov, L. L. Lev, F. Alarab, P. Constantinou, X. Wang, T. Schmitt, T. J. Z. Stock, L. Nicolaï, J. Očenášek, J. Minár
    Nature Communications, Volume 14, Article number: 4827 (2023)
    Read more
  2. (2023) Build-up and dephasing of Floquet–Bloch bands on subcycle timescales

    Strong light fields have created opportunities to tailor novel functionalities of solids. Floquet–Bloch states can form under periodic driving of electrons and enable exotic quantum phases. On subcycle timescales, lightwaves can simultaneously drive intraband currents and interband transitions, which enable high-harmonic generation and pave the way towards ultrafast electronics. Yet, the interplay of intraband and interband excitations and their relation to Floquet physics have been key open questions as dynamical aspects of Floquet states have remained elusive. Here we provide this link by visualizing the ultrafast build-up of Floquet–Bloch bands with time-resolved and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We drive surface states on a topological insulator with mid-infrared fields—strong enough for high-harmonic generation—and directly monitor the transient band structure with subcycle time resolution. Starting with strong intraband currents, we observe how Floquet sidebands emerge within a single optical cycle; intraband acceleration simultaneously proceeds in multiple sidebands until high-energy electrons scatter into bulk states and dissipation destroys the Floquet bands. Quantum non-equilibrium calculations explain the simultaneous occurrence of Floquet states with intraband and interband dynamics. Our joint experiment and theory study provides a direct time-domain view of Floquet physics and explores the fundamental frontiers of ultrafast band-structure engineering.

    S. Ito, M. Schüler, M. Meierhofer, S. Schlauderer, J. Freudenstein, J. Reimann, D. Afanasiev, K. A. Kokh, O. E. Tereshchenko, J. Güdde, M. A. Sentef, U. Höfer, R. Huber
    Nature (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-05850-x
    Read more
  3. (2023) Spin-polarized spatially indirect excitons in a topological insulator

    The exciton, a bound state of an electron and a hole, is a fundamental quasiparticle induced by coherent light–matter interactions in semiconductors. When the electrons and holes are in distinct spatial locations, spatially indirect excitons are formed with a much longer lifetime and a higher condensation temperature. One of the ultimate frontiers in this field is to create long-lived excitonic topological quasiparticles by driving exciton states with topological properties, to simultaneously leverage both topological effects and correlation. Here we reveal the existence of a transient excitonic topological surface state (TSS) in a topological insulator, Bi2Te3. By using time-, spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we directly follow the formation of a long-lived exciton state as revealed by an intensity buildup below the bulk-TSS mixing point and an anomalous band renormalization of the continuously connected TSS in the momentum space. Such a state inherits the spin-polarization of the TSS and is spatially indirect along the z axis, as it couples photoinduced surface electrons and bulk holes in the same momentum range, which ultimately leads to an excitonic state of the TSS. These results establish Bi2Te3 as a possible candidate for the excitonic condensation of TSSs and, in general, opens up a new paradigm for exploring the momentum space emergence of other spatially indirect excitons, such as moiré and quantum well excitons, and for the study of non-equilibrium many-body topological physics.

    Ryo Mori, Samuel Ciocys, Kazuaki Takasan, Ping Ai, Kayla Currier,
    Takahiro Morimoto, Joel E. Moore, Alessandra Lanzara
    Nature 614, 249–255 (2023)
    Read more
  4. (2016) Efficient n-type doping in epitaxial graphene through strong lateral orbital hybridization of Ti adsorbate

    In recent years, various doping methods for epitaxial graphene have been demonstrated through atom substitution and adsorption. Here we observe by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) a coupling-induced Dirac cone renormalization when depositing small amounts of Ti onto epitaxial graphene on SiC. We obtain a remarkably high doping efficiency and a readily tunable carrier velocity simply by changing the amount of deposited Ti. First-principles theoretical calculations show that a strong lateral (non-vertical) orbital coupling leads to an efficient doping of graphene by hybridizing the 2pz orbital of graphene and the 3d orbitals of the Ti adsorbate, which attached on graphene without creating any trap/scattering states. This Ti-induced hybridization is adsorbate-specific and has major consequences for efficient doping as well as applications towards adsorbate-induced modification of carrier transport in graphene.

    J.-W. Chen, H.-C. Huang, D. Convertino, C. Coletti, L.-Y. Chang, H.-W. Shiu, C.-M. Cheng, M.-F. Lin, S. Heun, F. S.-S. Chien, Y.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chen, C.-L. Wu
    Carbon 109, pp. 300-305
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  5. (2008) Method of measurements with random perturbation: Application in photoemission experiments

    We report on an application of a simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation (SPSA) algorithm to filtering systematic noise (SN) with nonzero mean value in photoemission data. In our analysis, we have used a series of 50 single-scan photoemission spectra of W(110) surface where different SNs were added. It was found that the SPSA-evaluated spectrum is in good agreement with the spectrum measured without SN. On the basis of our results, a wide application of SPSA algorithm for evaluation of experimental data is anticipated.

    D. S. Fedin, O. N. Granichin, Yu. S. Dedkov, S. L. Molodtsov
    Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 036103
    Read more
  6. (2008) Rashba effect in the graphene/Ni(111) system

    We report on angle-resolved photoemission studies of the electronic π states of high-quality epitaxial graphene layers on a Ni(111) surface. In this system the electron binding energy of the π states shows a strong dependence on the magnetization reversal of the Ni film. The observed extraordinarily large energy shift up to 225 meV of the graphene-derived π band peak position for opposite magnetization directions is attributed to a manifestation of the Rashba interaction between spin-polarized electrons in the π band and the large effective electric field at the graphene/Ni interface. Our findings show that an electron spin in the graphene layer can be manipulated in a controlled way and have important implications for graphene-based spintronic devices.

    Yu. S. Dedkov, M. Fonin, U. Rüdiger, C. Laubschat
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 107602
    Read more
  7. (2007) Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with a femtosecond high harmonic light source using a two-dimensional imaging electron analyser

    An experimental setup for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy using a femtosecond 1 kHz high harmonic light source and a two-dimensional electron analyzer for parallel energy and momentum detection is presented. A selection of the 27th harmonic (41.85 eV) from the harmonic spectrum of the light source is achieved with a multilayer Mo∕Si double mirror monochromator. The extinction efficiency of the monochromator in selecting this harmonic is shown to be better than 7:1, while the transmitted bandwidth of the selected harmonic is capable of supporting temporal pulse widths as short as 3fs. The recorded E(k) photoelectron spectrum from a Cu(111) surface demonstrates an angular resolution of better than 0.6° (=0.03 Å−1 at Ekin,e=36 eV). Used in a pump-probe configuration, the described experimental setup represents a powerful experimental tool for studying the femtosecond dynamics of ultrafast surface processes in real time.

    S. Mathias, L. Miaja-Avila, M. M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer
    Review of Scientific Instruments 78, 083105
    Read more
  8. (2007) Time Resolved Investigation of Coherently Controlled Electric Currents at a Metal Surface

    Studies of current dynamics in solids have been hindered by insufficiently brief trigger signals and electronic detection speeds. By combining a coherent control scheme with photoelectron spectroscopy, we generated and detected lateral electron currents at a metal surface on a femtosecond time scale with a contact-free experimental setup. We used coherent optical excitation at the light frequencies ωa and ωa/2 to induce the current, whose direction was controlled by the relative phase between the phase-locked laser excitation pulses. Time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy afforded a direct image of the momentum distribution of the excited electrons as a function of time. For the first (n = 1) image-potential state of Cu(100), we found a decay time of 10 femtoseconds, attributable to electron scattering with steps and surface defects.

    J. Güdde, M. Rohleder, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, U. Höfer
    Science 318 (5854), pp. 1287-1291
    Read more
  9. (2005) Femtosecond time-resolved studies of image-potential states at surfaces and interfaces of rare-gas adlayers

    Image-potential states have been investigated widely by time-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE) as a model system to study electron dynamics at metal surfaces. Rare-gas layers, which represent a prototype for dielectric overlayers, can modify the coupling of these states to the bulk metal in a controlled way. It will be shown that binding energies and lifetimes for inelastic decay depend in a straightforward way on the electron affinity of the rare gas and the layer thickness. Many of the experimental results can be accounted for in a simple one-dimensional description with a potential that only varies perpendicular to the surface. For rare-gas layers of sufficient thickness new electronic states arise from the screened image-potential of the metal within the adlayer. These states have similar properties as the image-potential states on clean surfaces, but are spatially located at the dielectric/metal interface and can have energies above the vacuum level. We discuss the origin and the basic properties of these previously unexplored interface states for the system Ar/Cu(1 0 0). We will show how time-resolved 2PPE can be used to study their decay by resonant tunneling through the layer into vacuum and by electron–hole-pair decay into the metal.

    J. Güdde, U. Höfer
    Progress in Surface Science 80, pp. 49-91
    Read more
  10. (2005) Momentum-resolved dynamics of Ar/Cu(100) interface states probed by time-resolved two-photon photoemission

    The electron dynamics of buried Ar/Cu(1 0 0) image-potential states was investigated by time-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE) as a function of parallel momentum. The first interface state shows a parabolic dispersion with an effective mass of 0.6. Its lifetime of 110 fs at the -point decreases with increasing parallel momentum. The momentum dependence of the decay can be understood by intra- and inter-band decay processes mediated by Cu electrons, just as the decay of image-potential states on the clean Cu(1 0 0) surface.

    M. Rohleder, K. Duncker, W. Berthold, J. Güdde, U. Höfer
    New Journal of Physics 7, pp. 1367-2630
    Read more
  11. (2005) Time-Resolved Two-Photon Photoemission of Buried Interface States in Ar/Cu(100)

    We demonstrate the existence of buried image-potential states at the interface between thick Ar films and a Cu(100) substrate. The electron dynamics of these solid-solid interface states, energetically located above the vacuum level in the band gaps of both materials, could be investigated with time-resolved two-photon photoemission for an Ar layer thickness up to 200 Å. Relaxation on time scales between 40 and 200 fs occurs via two distinct channels, resonant tunneling through the insulating layer into the vacuum and electron-hole pair decay in the metal.

    M. Rohleder, W. Berthold, J. Güdde, U. Höfer,
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 017401
    Read more


Product image
Product description
Article No.
Channelplates Set - 1 pair MCP 40

Spare channelplate set for all 40 mm CCD detectors

Phosphor screen

Spare phosphor screen for all 40 mm CCD detectors. Exchange with channelplates is recommended.

Cu gasket for PHOIBOS 150

PHOIBOS 150 analyzer main flange gasket for Releases R5, R6, R7

Rotary feedthrough for IRIS

Replacement feedthrough for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

Spindle with Spur and Bevel Gear for Iris

Replacement spindle for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

Tubus 3 with Iris

Replacement iris mechanism for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6



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