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PHOIBOS 100 MCD5 (inkl. PHOIBOS 100-63 MCD)

High-performance Hemipsherical Energy Analyzer with MCD Detector for UPS, XPS, ISS and LEISS. 

The PHOIBOS 100 Hemispherical Energy Analyzer is a powerful tool for modern photoelectron spectroscopy. This analyzer can be operated in all relevant analysis modes, such as XPS, UPS, as well as AES, ISS and LEISS. Its design and the modular supplementary hardware makes this analyzer the most versatile PES analyzer in the market. It can easily be upgraded with all available SPECS detection systems. 

The integrated MCD-5 (5 channel multi channeltron detector) detector is a well established and robust detection solution. The direct detection of electron signals yield quantitative counts per second (cps). With 5 simultaneous channels aquisition with high count rates can be guaranteed.

The energy analyzer section is equipped with 8 customizable entrance and 3 exit slits for UPS and XPS. The analyzer comes with a highly stable power supply, the HSA 3500 plus, for best performance in a wide kinetic energy range up to 3500 eV.

A special version with a smaller lens diamater (DN63CF) is available on request.


  • Robust and Performant Analyzer for XPS, UPS, AES, ISS and LEIS
  • 100 mm Mean Radius
  • Quantitative Analysis
  • High Count Rate and Linearity
  • 5 Simultaneous Energy Channels
  • Robust Detector Technology
  • Double µ-Metal Shielding




PHOIBOS 100 MCD5 (inkl. PHOIBOS 100-63 MCD)
Energy Dispersion by



8 Entrance, 3 Exit slits and Iris aperture

Lens Modes

  • Angular resolved Mode
  • Transmission Mode
  • Spatially resolved Mode
  • Electronics

    HSA 3500 plus HT 100

    Working Pressure

    10-11 to 10-7 mbar

    Acceptance Angle


    Measurement Modes

  • Sweeping Mode
  • Fixed Mode
  • Energy Window

    20% of Pass Energy

    Kinetic Energy Range

    0 - 3500 eV

    Pass Energies

    0 - 550 eV continously adjustable


    MCD 5

    Detector Channels


    Angular Resolution

    < 0.5°

    Energy Resolution

    <10 meV for XPS

    Lateral Resolution

    < 100 µm

    XPS Count Rates UHV

    Ag 3d measured with XR 50 300 W MgKa > 1.7 Mcps @ 0.85 eV, > 4.6 Mcps @ 1.00 eV

    Magnetic Shielding

    Double µ-Metal Shielding

    Mounting Flange

    DN100 CF

    Electric Isolation

    up to 7 keV

    Working Distance

    40 mm



    1. (2019) Insights into the role of Zn and Ga in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol over Pd

      The hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol is a viable alternative for reducing greenhouse gases net emissions as well as a route for hydrogen storage and transportation. In this context, the synthesis of active and selective catalysts is a relevant objective. In this work, we study the promotion of Pd with Ga and Zn in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol at 800 kPa and 220–280 °C. Mono and intermetallic catalysts (Pd/SiO2, PdGa/SiO2 and Pd-Zn/SiO2) were synthesized by incipient wetness impregnation with the aid of triethanolamine as an organic additive, obtaining similar average metal particle sizes (between 9 and 12 nm). Kinetic analysis reveals that the addition of Ga and Zn increases the turnover frequency for methanol formation by an order of magnitude without significant changes in the reaction rate of the reverse water-gas shift (r-WGS) which is a parallel undesired reaction. The selectivity to methanol (at 220 °C) thus increases from 3% for Pd/SiO2 to 12% for Pd-Ga/SiO2 and 30% for Pd-Zn/SiO2. XPS studies, Infrared analysis of CO adsorption, and XRD analyses show the presence of intermetallic phases Pd2Ga and PdZn on the surface. The results suggest that Ga and Zn promote Pd, increasing its activity towards the synthesis of methanol, by creating more active sites for this reaction. These sites are likely formed by intermetallic compounds such as Pd2Ga and PdZn.

      R. Manrique, R. Jiménez, J. Rodríguez-Pereira, V. G. Baldovino-Medrano, and A. Karelovic
      International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 44, Issue 31, 21 June 2019, Pages 16526-16536
      Read more
    2. (2018) Apparatus for dosing liquid water in ultrahigh vacuum

      The structure of the solid-liquid interface often defines the function and performance of materials in applications. To study this interface at the atomic scale, we extended an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface-science chamber with an apparatus that allows bringing a surface in contact with ultrapure liquid water without exposure to air. In this process, a sample, typically a single crystal prepared and characterized in UHV, is transferred into a separate, small chamber. This chamber already contains a volume of ultrapure water ice. The ice is at cryogenic temperature, which reduces its vapor pressure to the UHV range. Upon warming, the ice melts and forms a liquid droplet, which is deposited on the sample. In test experiments, a rutile TiO2(110) single crystal exposed to liquid water showed unprecedented surface purity, as established by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. These results enabled us to separate the effect of pure water from the effect of low-level impurities present in the air. Other possible uses of the setup are discussed.

      J. Balajka, J. Pavelec, M. Komora, M. Schmid, U. Diebold
      Review of Scientific Instruments 89, 083906
      Read more
    3. (2017) Catalytic consequences of Ga promotion on Cu for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol

      The promotion of Ga on SiO2 supported Cu in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol at 800 kPa and 200–280 °C was investigated. Cu/SiO2 and CuGa/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by a water-in-oil microemulsion technique resulting in Cu clusters of 4–6.5 nm. It was found that Ga addition increased the methanol formation rate by an order of magnitude without significantly changing that for reverse water gas shift (RWGS). This trend is also evidenced by the decrease in the apparent activation barrier for methanol formation from 78 (for Cu/SiO2) to 26–39 kJ mol−1 when Ga was added, but not for RWGS (107–132 kJ mol−1). Kinetic and in situ DRIFTS analyses revealed that formate intermediates are adsorbed on both Cu and Ga2O3 and that methoxy hydrogenation could be the rate determining step of methanol synthesis. In the case of RWGS, a zero order of CO formation with respect to H2 concentration was consistent with a redox mechanism and with the reaction occurring predominantly on Cu sites. The results suggest that Ga promotes Cu increasing methanol selectivity, likely by creating new active sites for methanol formation without modifying its oxidation state, which under reaction conditions remains mostly metallic.

      J. C. Medina, M. Figueroa, R. Manrique, J. R. Pereira, P. D. Srinivasan, J. J. Bravo-Suárez, V. G. Baldovino Medrano, R. Jiméneza and A. Karelovic
      Catal. Sci. Technol., 2017,7, 3375-3387
      Read more
    4. (2004) 8% efficient CuInS2 solar cells by electrochemically removed Cu-S Phases

      Investigations on how to replace the toxic KCN etching for the removal of Cu–S phases during the preparation of CuInS2 (CIS) absorber layers by electrochemical procedures are presented. Starting from a simple anodic treatment in V2+/V3+ electrolyte, a more complex photoelectrochemical technique is developed which consists of different consecutive etching steps for the dissolution of the predominant CuS and for the removal of remaining Cu2S and a small sacrificial layer of CuInS2. This new method also offers the possibility of in situ quality control of the CIS in a photoelectrochemical solar cell (PECS) setup. Further examination of the treated films is carried out using X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by further processing of the samples to create solid state solar cells.

      T. Wilhelm, B. Berenguier, M. Aggour, K. Skorupska, M. Kanis, M. Winkelnkemper, J. Klaer, C. Kelch, H. J. Lewerenz
      Thin Solid Films 480-481, pp. 24-28
      Read more
    5. (2004) Band line-up at the 4H-SiC/Ni interface determined with photoemission spectroscopy

      The band line-up at the 4H-SiC/Ni interface was determined using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Ni was deposited in 14 steps on an ex situ cleaned n-type 4H-SiC substrate starting with an initial deposition of 0.5 Å up to a final thickness of 110 Å. The sample surface was characterized in situ by XPS before the growth sequence, and after each Ni deposition step. Analysis of the Ni 3d and O 1s core level peaks indicates that a thin Ni oxide layer was formed at the interface due to a chemical reaction with oxidizing agents on the sample surface due to the ex situ substrate preparation before a metallic Ni film could be grown. The substrate core level spectra exhibit a significant shift to lower binding energy due to the development of an inversion condition in the semiconductor at the interface. This resulted in the formation of an electron injection barrier of 3.26 eV at the interface.

      M. M. Beerbom, Z. Bednarova, R. Gargagliano, Y.N . Emirov, R. Schlaf
      Applied Surface Science 236 (1-4), pp. 208-216
      Read more


    Product image
    Product description
    Article No.
    5-Channeltron-Detection Unit for PHOIBOS 100

    Refurbished and tested MCD-5 detector for PHOIBOS 100

    Channeltron-Array set (5)

    Replacement for 5-channel channelron detector MCD-5 for PHOIBOS 100

    Cu gasket DN370CF for PHOIBOS 100

    PHOIBOS 100 analyzer main flange gasket for Releases R3, R6, R7

    Cu gasket for PHOIBOS 100

    PHOIBOS 100 analyzer main flange gasket for Releases R5

    Rotary feedthrough for IRIS

    Replacement feedthrough for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

    Spindle with Spur and Bevel Gear for Iris

    Replacement spindle for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

    Tubus 3 with Iris

    Replacement iris mechanism for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6



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