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PHOIBOS 100 2D-DLD (PHOIBOS 100-63 2D-DLD)

Hemispherical energy analyzer with 2D DLD detector for XPS, ARPES, ISS and LEISS with 100 mm mean radius.

The PHOIBOS 100 hemispherical energy analyzer is the state-of-the-art analysis solution for photoelectron spectroscopy with high high csystem compatibility. This analyzer can be operated in all relevant analysis modes, such as ARPES, XPS, UPS, as well as AES, ISS and LEISS. Its design and the modular supplementary hardware makes this analyzer the most versatile PES analyzer in the market.

The integrated 2D-DLD detector is an ultrafast 2D single event detection system. The direct detection of electron signals yield quantitative counts per second (cps) in the energy and angular/second dimension. The powerful electronics can aquire ultrafast snapshot measurements of the energy spectrum with up to 1000 energy (anguklar channels as well as continous sweeping energy spectra. Its low dark count rate and high linearity make this detector outstanding for XPS analyis. 

The energy analyzer sectionis equipped with 8 customizable entrance and 3 exit slits. For highest energy resolution the entrance slit can be chosen down to 50 µm, providing achievable energy resolution better than 1.8 meV. The analyzer comes with a highly stable power supply, the HSA 3500 plus, for best performance in a wide kinetic energy range.

A special version with a smaller lens diamater (DN63CF) is available on request.

KEY FEATURES

  • High Performance Analyzer for XPS, ARPES, AES, ISS and LEIS
  • 100 mm Mean Radius
  • Energy resolution better than 3 meV
  • Angular Resolution better than 0.1°
  • 2D MCP Chevron Detector with Delayline Detection
  • Double µ-Metal Shielding

MADE FOR THESE METHODS

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SPECIFICATIONS

PHOIBOS 100 2D-DLD (PHOIBOS 100-63 2D-DLD)
Performance
Energy Resolution

< 3 meV

Angular Resolution

< 0.1°

k-Resolution

N/A

Acceptance Angle

±15°, ±7°, ±4° and ±3°

Lateral Resolution

< 40 µm

Smallest Acceptance Spot

100 µm

XPS Count Rates UHV

tba

Detector Channels

1000 x 800 (with Channel Binning)

Operation
Kinetic Energy Range

0-3500 eV

Pass Energies

0-550 eV Continously Adjustable

Energy Dispersion

Hemisphere

Lens Modes

Transmission Mode, Angular Resolved Mode, Magnification (Lateral Resolved) Mode

Measurement Modes

Snapshot Mode, Sweeping Mode, Fixed Energy Mode

Detector

2D DLD Detector

Slits/Apertures

8 entrance and 3 exit slits and iris aperture

Energy Window

20% of Pass Energy

Electronics

HSA 3500 +

Working Pressure

10-11 to 10-7 mbar

Mounting
Working Distance

40 mm

Mounting Flange

DN100CF (6" OD)

Electric Isolation

> 3.5 keV

Magnetic Shielding

Double µ-Metal Shielding

PUBLICATIONS

  1. (2019) Insights into the role of Zn and Ga in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol over Pd

    The hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol is a viable alternative for reducing greenhouse gases net emissions as well as a route for hydrogen storage and transportation. In this context, the synthesis of active and selective catalysts is a relevant objective. In this work, we study the promotion of Pd with Ga and Zn in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol at 800 kPa and 220–280 °C. Mono and intermetallic catalysts (Pd/SiO2, PdGa/SiO2 and Pd-Zn/SiO2) were synthesized by incipient wetness impregnation with the aid of triethanolamine as an organic additive, obtaining similar average metal particle sizes (between 9 and 12 nm). Kinetic analysis reveals that the addition of Ga and Zn increases the turnover frequency for methanol formation by an order of magnitude without significant changes in the reaction rate of the reverse water-gas shift (r-WGS) which is a parallel undesired reaction. The selectivity to methanol (at 220 °C) thus increases from 3% for Pd/SiO2 to 12% for Pd-Ga/SiO2 and 30% for Pd-Zn/SiO2. XPS studies, Infrared analysis of CO adsorption, and XRD analyses show the presence of intermetallic phases Pd2Ga and PdZn on the surface. The results suggest that Ga and Zn promote Pd, increasing its activity towards the synthesis of methanol, by creating more active sites for this reaction. These sites are likely formed by intermetallic compounds such as Pd2Ga and PdZn.



    R. Manrique, R. Jiménez, J. Rodríguez-Pereira, V. G. Baldovino-Medrano, and A. Karelovic
    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 44, Issue 31, 21 June 2019, Pages 16526-16536
    Read more
  2. (2017) Catalytic consequences of Ga promotion on Cu for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol

    The promotion of Ga on SiO2 supported Cu in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol at 800 kPa and 200–280 °C was investigated. Cu/SiO2 and CuGa/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by a water-in-oil microemulsion technique resulting in Cu clusters of 4–6.5 nm. It was found that Ga addition increased the methanol formation rate by an order of magnitude without significantly changing that for reverse water gas shift (RWGS). This trend is also evidenced by the decrease in the apparent activation barrier for methanol formation from 78 (for Cu/SiO2) to 26–39 kJ mol−1 when Ga was added, but not for RWGS (107–132 kJ mol−1). Kinetic and in situ DRIFTS analyses revealed that formate intermediates are adsorbed on both Cu and Ga2O3 and that methoxy hydrogenation could be the rate determining step of methanol synthesis. In the case of RWGS, a zero order of CO formation with respect to H2 concentration was consistent with a redox mechanism and with the reaction occurring predominantly on Cu sites. The results suggest that Ga promotes Cu increasing methanol selectivity, likely by creating new active sites for methanol formation without modifying its oxidation state, which under reaction conditions remains mostly metallic.



    J. C. Medina, M. Figueroa, R. Manrique, J. R. Pereira, P. D. Srinivasan, J. J. Bravo-Suárez, V. G. Baldovino Medrano, R. Jiméneza and A. Karelovic
    Catal. Sci. Technol., 2017,7, 3375-3387
    Read more

SPARE PARTS

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Product image
Product description
Article No.
 
Channelplates set (1 pair MCP) for DLD detector

Spare channelplate set for 1D & 2D-DLD 100 & 2D-DLD 150. Not suitable for 1D-DLD 150

2060011380
DN40CF 4-fold SMB Feedthrough for DLD

Spare electrical feedthrough for all DLD detectors. Connection flange for the ACU unit

2100011768
Cu gasket DN370CF for PHOIBOS 100

PHOIBOS 100 analyzer main flange gasket for Releases R3, R6, R7

2060000572
Cu gasket for PHOIBOS 100

PHOIBOS 100 analyzer main flange gasket for Releases R5

2070000338
Rotary feedthrough for IRIS

Replacement feedthrough for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

2060001175
Spindle with Spur and Bevel Gear for Iris

Replacement spindle for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

2055021656
Tubus 3 with Iris

Replacement iris mechanism for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6

2079150291

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