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Sample Environment

Exchangable Sample Environments allow users to adjust the EnviroESCA machine to different sample and experiment conditions quickly and easily.

The stringent UHV requirement of conventional XPS is a limitation that does no longer apply with EnviroESCA. Dedicated sample environment modules are provided as smart units for different classes of samples and applications. The modules are equipped with all relevant components such as sample stage, plasma cleaning and gas handling. Their exchange can be readily accomplished in just a few minutes.

Exchange room temperature (RT) with variable temperature (VT) or high temperature (HT) environments. Use dedicated environments when working performing special experiments using electrical feedthroughs or when working with liquids or messy materials.

KEY FEATURES

  • Exchangable Sample Environment
  • Quickly adjust conditions to different samples and experiments
  • Plasma cleaning mechanism
  • Available for different temperature ranges
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MADE FOR THESE METHODS

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RELATED PRODUCTS

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PUBLICATIONS

  1. (2019) Hard Italian cheese, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    In this submission, we show survey, O 1s, and C 1s near ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) spectra from a hard Italian cheese, a material that could not be analyzed by conventional approaches without special sample preparation. The C 1s spectrum is fit under the assumption that the surface of the cheese is primarily fat (triglyceride), which is expected to be the lowest free energy component of the material. The O 1s envelope corresponding to the cheese was well fit to two components of equal area.



    T. Roychowdhury, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014015 (2019)
    Read more
  2. (2019) Argon gas, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure–x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can analyze moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, and the Auger LMM NAP-XPS spectra from argon gas, a material that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional methods. A small N 1s signal from residual nitrogen gas in the chamber is also present in the survey spectrum.



    D. I. Patel, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014024 (2019)
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  3. (2019) Dimethyl sulfoxide by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey, O 1s, C 1s, S 2p, and S 2s NAP-XPS spectra from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widely used organic solvent that is miscible with water. The sample was analyzed directly in its native, liquid state at room temperature. In general, both liquid and gas phase peaks are observed in the narrow scans. Due to the importance of DMSO in both chemistry and biology, it is likely that it will appear in future NAP-XPS analyses. Accordingly, these data may serve as a reference for future work.



    T. G. Avval, C. V. Cushman, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014020 (2019)
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  4. (2019) Oxygen gas, O2(g), by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show the survey, O 1s, valence band, and O KLL Auger NAP-XPS spectra of oxygen gas, O2, a material that would be difficult to analyze by conventional XPS. A small N 1s signal from N2(g) is also observed in the survey spectrum. The O 1s narrow scan is fit to Gaussian-Lorentzian sum functions. The Lorentzian character of this synthetic line shape was varied to obtain the best fit. Since it is likely that O2(g) will be present in other NAP-XPS analyses, these data should serve as a useful reference for other researchers.



    T. G. Avval, S. Chatterjee, G. T. Hodges, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014021 (2019)
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  5. (2019) XPS studies on dispersed and immobilised carbon nitrides used for dye degradation

    Liquid phase adsorption is a common technique in waste water purification. However, this process has some downsides. The removal of environmentally harmful contaminants from organic liquids by adsorption produces secondary waste which has to be treated afterwards. The treatment can be e.g. high temperatures or a landfill. Photocatalysts such as CN6 can remove the dye under light irradiation but most times they have to be separated afterwards. Immobilisation of these photocatalysts can be one way to address this problem. The resulting photocatalyst layers were analysed in operando by near-ambient pressure XPS. This enabled us to detect the active species, i.e. oxygen radicals, at the surface, responsible for the dye degradation.



    J. Rieß, M. Lublow, S. Anders, M. Tasbihi, A. Acharjya, K. Kailasam, A. Thomas, M. Schwarze, R. Schomäcker
    Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2019, Advance Article
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  6. (2019) Near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy monitoring of the surface immobilization cascade on a porous silicon-gold nanoparticle FET biosensor

    Porous silicon (PSi) offers extremely attractive optical, electronic and biofunctional properties for the development of biosensors. In the present work, we have studied the step by step sandwich biofunctionalization cascade of a PSi platform by near ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) and, in parallel, we have developed a three electrode PSi device sensitive to changes in surface conductance. Prior to the NAP-XPS characterization, the organosilanization with glycidyloxy-propyl-trimethoxy-silane, the bioconjugation, and the gold nanoparticle (AuNP) sensitization layer were monitored by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The NAP-XPS analysis revealed outstanding results: a) the NAP-XPS chamber allows detecting the pristine PSi with negligible adventitious carbon contamination, b) the single oxygen bonded carbon component of the Glycidyl group dominates the C1s core level after organosilanization, c) the good progress of the biofunctionalization/recognition is confirmed by the increase of the silica to silicon component ratio in the Si2p core level and, d) the N1s core level describes identical features from the presence of aminoacid sequences in the capture/detection steps. A FET sensing of a prostate specific antigen (PSA) marker was performed through conjugation with AuNPs. For a given concentration of PSA (and AuNPs) the conductance increased with the increase of the gate voltage. For a given gate voltage, the conductance was observed to increase for increasing concentration of PSA. This allowed proposing a calibration line for the biosensor, which is valid from a clinically relevant range of 0.1 ng/mL.



    C. Rodriguez, P. Dietrich, V. Torres-Costa, V. Cebrián, C. Gómez-Abad, A. Díaz, O. Ahumada, M. M. Silván
    Applied Surface Science, Available online 6 June 2019
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  7. (2019) Chemical surface analysis on materials and devices under functional conditions – Environmental photoelectron spectroscopy as non-destructive tool for routine characterization

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has become a routine analysis method to determine the chemical composition and bonding states of elements of sample surfaces in many industrial applications, like materials development, failure analysis, quality control and device certification. To obtain significant results the analyses of such samples require a fast analysis with reliable quantification and stable data for repeated experiments. In standard XPS experiments under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions the significance of the results can be affected by changing surface compositions under the analysis conditions, different degrees of degassing and thus changing degrees of differential charging in insulating samples. In this publication the positive influence of XPS analysis under elevated pressures, often named Near-Ambient Pressure XPS or “Environmental XPS” is shown for different samples. Furthermore the process of charge compensation in gas pressures of 1–2 mbar is introduced, followed by a discussion of the perspectives of this “Environmental Charge Compensation”. The paper discusses the efficiency and stability of Environmental Charge Compensations for typical insulating test samples, as well as for different bulk insulators. The additional capability of XPS in elevated pressures is demonstrated on a superabsorbent polymer typically used in diapers, showing the difference of the analysis results for its wet and dry state. The paper ends with the example of a commercial printed circuit board demonstrating the power of the method for routine analysis of complete devices.



    P. Dietrich, S. Bahr, T. Yamamoto, M. Meyer, A. Thissen
    Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena;
    Volume 231, February 2019, Pages 118-126
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  8. (2019) Clamshell, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show NAP-XPS survey, Ca (3p, 2p, 2s), O 1s, C 1s, and N 1s narrow, and valence band spectra from a clamshell, a material of biological origin that would be challenging to analyze by conventional XPS approaches. Like most shells of biological origin, clamshells are primarily composed of calcium carbonate.



    T. Roychowdhury, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014019 (2019)
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  9. (2019) Kidney stone, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can be used to probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show O 1s, C 1s, and Ca 2p narrow scans and a survey NAP-XPS spectrum from a human urolith, i.e., a kidney stone, which is a biomaterial that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional approaches.



    T. Roychowdhury, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014017 (2019)
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  10. (2019) Sesame seeds, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than ca. 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show NAP-XPS of sesame seeds, a food sample that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional approaches. Survey spectra from three separate seeds are shown. In addition to the expected C 1s and O 1s signals, seeds show calcium. The C 1s narrow scans from the three seeds are well fit by four components. The largest of these is attributed to carbon singly bonded to oxygen (C—O), which suggests carboydrates or cellulose in the material. A small N 1s peak is observed in all the survey spectra.



    T. Roychowdhury , S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014018 (2019)
    Read more
  11. (2019) Human tooth, by near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can be used to analyze moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, the authors present the NAP-XPS survey, C 1s, O 1s, Ca 2p, and P 2p narrow scans from a human adult molar tooth, a biological material that would be challenging to analyze by conventional approaches. No pretreatment or cleaning of this dental specimen was performed prior to analysis. Three different regions (top, middle, and root) of the tooth were analyzed. The survey spectra, which differed considerably from each other, show the presence of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorous. Tin and sulfur are also present in small amounts on the top part of the tooth. C 1s narrow spectra are well fitted with four synthetic peaks.



    D. Shah, T. Roychowdhury, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014016 (2019)
    Read more
  12. (2019) Calcite (CaCO3), by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can analyze moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, minerals, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show NAP-XPS survey and Ca 2p, O 1s, and C 1s narrow scans from calcite, which was analyzed here without external charge compensation. Quantitation of the peaks in the narrow scan gives a ratio that is very close to the theoretical 1:1:3 ratio expected for Ca:C:O in the material. The small N 1s signal in the survey spectrum is attributed to residual nitrogen gas in the analysis chamber.



    T. Roychowdhury, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014025 (2019)
    Read more
  13. (2019) Carbon dioxide gas, CO2(g), by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show the survey, O 1s, C 1s, valence band, O KLL Auger, and C KLL Auger NAP-XPS spectra of gaseous carbon dioxide, CO2, a material that would be difficult to analyze by conventional XPS. A small N 1s signal from N2(g) is also observed in the survey spectrum. The C 1s and O 1s signals in the narrow scans are fit to Gaussian–Lorentzian sum and asymmetric Lorentzian (LA) functions. Better fits are obtained with the LA synthetic line shape. Since it is likely that CO2(g) will be present in other NAP-XPS analyses, these data should serve as a useful reference for other researchers.



    T. G. Avval, S. Chatterjee, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014022 (2019);
    Read more
  14. (2019) Water vapor, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can be used to probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey and O 1s NAP-XPS spectra from water vapor, a material that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional approaches and that is expected to be present in many analyses.



    D. I. Patel, D. Shah, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014026 (2019)
    Read more
  15. (2019) Ethylene glycol, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can analyze moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show C 1s, O 1s, and survey NAP-XPS spectra from ethylene glycol, an organic solvent that could not be analyzed at near-ambient pressures by conventional approaches. An N 1s signal is present in the survey spectrum of the material.



    D. I. Patel, J. O'Tani, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 024007 (2019)
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  16. (2019) Ambient air, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at 2500 Pa or higher. With NAP-XPS, XPS can analyze moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. Because of the relatively high working pressure of NAP-XPS, the components of ambient air may be present in the analytical chamber during data acquisition. In this submission, we show survey, O 1s, N 1s, valence band, oxygen Auger (KLL), and nitrogen Auger (KLL) NAP-XPS spectra from ambient air, a material that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional XPS.



    D. I. Patel, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 024002 (2019)
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  17. (2019) Coca-Cola, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near ambient pressure-x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at ca. 2500 Pa, or higher in some cases. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show an NAP-XPS survey spectrum, and also O 1s and C 1s narrow scans, of a commercial soft drink, Coca-Cola. Clearly this is a material that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional XPS. The C 1s narrow scan is fit to five synthetic components. The O 1s narrow scan shows strong contributions from both liquid and gas phase water. A small N 1s signal in the survey spectrum is attributed to background nitrogen. The shape of the uniqueness plot corresponding to the C 1s fit suggests that the fit parameters are statistically significant.



    D. Shah, C. V. Cushman, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 024005 (2019)
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  18. (2019) Liquid water, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at ca. 2500 Pa, or higher in some cases. With NAP-XPS, XPS can be used to analyze moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey, O 1s, O KLL, and valence band NAP-XPS spectra from liquid water, a material that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional approaches. The O 1s signal was fit to two components attributed to liquid and vapor phase water. The carbon in the survey spectrum is attributed to contaminants in the water and/or adventitious carbon.



    D. Shah, D. I. Patel, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 024003 (2019)
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  19. (2019) Poly(L-lactic acid), by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near ambient pressure - x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at 2500 Pa or higher. With NAP-XPS, one can analyze moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission we show C 1s, O 1s, and survey NAP-XPS spectra from poly(L-lactic acid). The C 1s and O 1s envelopes were fit with three and two Gaussian-Lorentzian sum functions, respectively. Water vapor (800 Pa) was used as the residual gas for charge compensation, which was confirmed by the sharp peak at 535.0 eV in the O 1s narrow scan. The uniqueness plot corresponding to the C 1s fit shows that the fit parameters had statistical significance. C 1s and O 1s spectra of PLLA damaged by exposure to x-rays for ca. 1 hour are also included.



    D. I. Patel, S. Noack, C. D. Vacogne, H. Schlaad, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 024004 (2019)
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  20. (2019) Zirconium oxide particles, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure–x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at ca. 2500 Pa, or even higher in some cases. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe particles, moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey, narrow (Zr 3p, Zr 3d, and O 1s), and Auger (O KLL) NAP-XPS scans of ZrO2 particles. Charge compensation for this insulating sample took place via the residual gas in the chamber. Zirconia is an important ceramic material. Accordingly, the XPS spectra of zirconia should be useful references.



    D. Shah, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 024001 (2019);
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  21. (2019) Introduction to near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of various materials

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, a wide variety of unconventional materials can be analyzed, including moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. Charge compensation with NAP-XPS takes place simply through the residual/background gas in the chamber, which is ionized by the incident x-rays. High quality spectra—high resolution and good signal-to-noise ratios—are regularly obtained. This article is an introduction to a series of papers in Surface Science Spectra on the NAP-XPS characterization of a series of materials. The purpose of these articles is to introduce and demonstrate the versatility and usefulness of the technique.



    D. I. Patel, T. Roychowdhury, V. Jain, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 016801 (2019)
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  22. (2019) Bovine serum albumin, aqueous solution, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey, C 1s, O 1s, and N 1s narrow scans from an aqueous solution of a common protein, bovine serum albumin. The C 1s peak envelope is well fit to four symmetric peaks of equal width that correspond to carbon bonded to carbon and hydrogen (C-1), carbon singly bonded to oxygen (C-2), carbonyl and/or amide carbon (C-3), and carboxyl carbon (C-4). Two possible peak fits are considered for the N 1s and O 1s peak envelopes. The N 1s signal is fit to four peaks that correspond to amine (—NH2), amide (O˭C‒NH2), ammonium (—NH3+), and N2(g) nitrogen, and alternatively to three peaks that correspond to amine, amide, and N2(g) nitrogen. The O 1s peak envelope is similarly fit to three and four components.



    V. Jain, M. Kjærvik, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014027 (2019)
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  23. (2019) Polytetrafluoroethylene, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure–x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is an important polymer with many applications in science and industry. It is an insulator that charges under x-ray illumination at high vacuum. In this submission, we show NAP-XPS spectra of PTFE. Survey spectra are shown at different background gas (air) pressures. These spectra contain F 2s, C 1s, O 1s, N 1s, F 1s, and F Auger signals. Also presented are F 1s narrow scans over a range of background pressures and illumination times. Peaks decrease in width, shift toward literature values, and improve in shape with increasing background gas pressure.



    V. Jain, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014028 (2019)
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  24. (2019) Nitrogen gas (N2), by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at ca. 2500 Pa, or even higher in some cases. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show NAP-XPS survey and narrow scans from nitrogen gas (N2), a material that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional approaches. Nitrogen gas is an important reference material for NAP-XPS because residual N2 from the air and/or venting produces an N 1s signal in many NAP-XPS spectra. Nitrogen gas may also be deliberately employed as the gaseous background for NAP-XPS experiments. The survey spectrum of N2 gas contains N 1s, N 2s, N KLL (Auger), and valence band signals. This submission is part of a series of articles on NAP-XPS that has been submitted to Surface Science Spectra.



    D. Shah, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014023 (2019)
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  25. (2019) Coffee bean, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., up to 2500 Pa, or higher in some cases. NAP-XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we present NAP-XPS C 1s and O 1s narrow scans and a survey spectrum of a coffee bean, a material that would be difficult or even impossible to analyze by conventional XPS. Coffee beans are ground to produce coffee powder, which is the source of one of the world’s most common beverages, coffee. The survey spectrum shows small amounts of sulfur and calcium.



    D. Shah, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen and M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 024006 (2019)
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  26. (2018) Surface characterisation of Escherichia coli under various conditions by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Bacteria are inherently in a hydrated state and therefore not compatible to ultra‐high vacuum techniques such as XPS without prior sample preparation involving freeze drying or fast freezing. This has changed with the development of near‐ambient pressure (NAP)‐XPS, which makes it possible to characterise the bacterial surface with minimal sample preparation. This paper presents NAP‐XPS measurements of Escherichia coli under various NAP conditions: at 11 mbar in a humid environment, at 2 mbar after drying in the chamber, pre‐dried at 4 mbar, and at 1 mbar after overnight pumping at 10−4 mbar. The high‐resolution spectra of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are presented and found to be in general agreement with XPS measurements from freeze‐dried and fast‐frozen bacteria. However, it was found that the amount of carbon components associated with polysaccharides increases relative to aliphatic carbon during drying and increases further after overnight pumping. This implies that drying has an impact on the bacterial surface.



    M. Kjærvik, K. Schwibbert, P. Dietrich, A. Thissen, W. E. S. Unger
    Surf Interface Anal. 2018;1–5.
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  27. (2017) Detection of suspended nanoparticles with near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Two systems of suspended nanoparticles have been studied with near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: silver nanoparticles in water and strontium fluoride—calcium fluoride core-shell nanoparticles in ethylene glycol. The corresponding dry samples were measured under ultra high vacuum for comparison. The results obtained under near-ambient pressure were overall comparable to those obtained under ultra high vacuum, although measuring silver nanoparticles in water requires a high pass energy and a long acquisition time. A shift towards higher binding energies was found for the silver nanoparticles in aqueous suspension compared to the corresponding dry sample, which can be assigned to a change of surface potential at the water-nanoparticle interface. The shell-thickness of the core-shell nanoparticles was estimated based on simulated spectra from the National Institute of Standards and Technology database for simulation of electron spectra for surface analysis. With the instrumental set-up presented in this paper, nanoparticle suspensions in a suitable container can be directly inserted into the analysis chamber and measured without prior sample preparation.



    M. Kjærvik, A. Hermanns, P. Dietrich, A. Thissen, S. Bahr, B. Ritter, E. Kemnitz, W. E S Unger
    Marit Kjærvik et al 2017 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 29 474002
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  28. (2017) Trends in Advanced XPS Instrumentation. 7. Advanced Software Capabilities

    In this article, we focus on the features of a modern XPS software package: the Specslab Prodigy system, which is used in most SPECS instruments. Software packages are an integral part of almost any analytical instrument these days, and purchasing decisions are often based as much on the software of an instrument as its hardware.

    Here, we discuss some of the software innovations that are part of the EnviroESCA. These capabilities make this instrument and other SPECS instruments relatively easy to use and improve their data collection and workup capabilities. Two areas of focus
    here will be the software’s ability to save and allow examination of every individual narrow scan, and its ability to interlace during data acquisition, i.e., alternate between taking different narrow scans and survey scans to avoid taking a block of any one type of scan.



    S. Chatterjee, A. Thißen, P. Dietrich, C. Fleischer, C. V. Cushman, J, Banerjee, N. J. Smith, M. R. Linford,
    Vacuum Technology & Coating, December 2017
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