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EnviroESCA Sample holders

Adjust your EnviroESCA to your current experimental needs with our range of sample plates!

EnviroESCA has been designed with the idea in mind that in the future, any kind of sample should be XPS compatible. While samples up to 12 cm in diamater and 4 cm in height can be introduced on the large main plate, some experiments require a more specialized approach. The plate can therefore be outfitted with different specialized sample holders for achieving different temperatures, hold SEM stub type holders, or introduce electrical contacts to the sample.

KEY FEATURES

  • Multiple sample holder options, adjusted to your experimental needs
  • SEM stub compatible High Temperature holder for laser heating up to 800 °C
  • Resistive heating plate for temperatures up to 600 °C
  • Peltier cooled plate for temperatures down to 5 °C
  • Multipin in situ electrical contacts available

MADE FOR THESE METHODS

1

RELATED PRODUCTS

6

APPLICATION NOTES

PUBLICATIONS

  1. (2022) Emerging cold plasma treatment and machine learning prospects for seed priming: a step towards sustainable food production

    Seeds are vulnerable to physical and biological stresses during the germination process. Seed priming strategies can alleviate such stresses. Seed priming is a technique of treating and drying seeds prior to germination in order to accelerate the metabolic process of germination. Multiple benefits are offered by seed priming techniques, such as reducing fertilizer use, accelerating seed germination, and inducing systemic resistance in plants, which are both cost-effective and eco-friendly. For seed priming, cold plasma (CP)-mediated priming could be an innovative alternative to synthetic chemical treatments. CP priming is an eco-friendly, safe and economical, yet relatively less explored technique towards the development of seed priming. In this review, we discussed in detail the application of CP technology for seed priming to enhance germination, the quality of seeds, and the production of crops in a sustainable manner. Additionally, the combination treatment of CP with nanoparticle (NP) priming is also discussed. The large numbers of parameters need to be monitored and optimized during CP treatment to achieve the desired priming results. Here, we discussed a new perspective of machine learning for modeling plasma treatment parameters in agriculture for the development of synergistic protocols for different types of seed priming.



    A. Shelar, A. V. Singh, P. Dietrich, R. S. Maharjan, A. Thissen, P. N. Didwal, M. Shinde, P. Laux, A. Luch, V. Mathe, T. Jahnke, M. Chaskar and, R. Patil
    Issue 17, 2022, Issue in Progress, RSC Advances
    Read more
  2. (2022) Visualization of on-surface ethylene polymerization through ethylene insertion

    Polyethylene production through catalytic ethylene polymerization is one of the most common processes
    in the chemical industry. The popular Cossee-Arlman mechanism hypothesizes that the ethylene be
    directly inserted into the metal–carbon bond during chain growth, which has been awaiting microscopic
    and spatiotemporal experimental confirmation. Here, we report an in situ visualization of ethylene
    polymerization by scanning tunneling microscopy on a carburized iron single-crystal surface. We
    observed that ethylene polymerization proceeds on a specific triangular iron site at the boundary
    between two carbide domains. Without an activator, an intermediate, attributed to surface-anchored
    ethylidene (CHCH3), serves as the chain initiator (self-initiation), which subsequently grows by
    ethylene insertion. Our finding provides direct experimental evidence of the ethylene polymerization
    pathway at the molecular level.



    W. Guo, J. Yin, Z. Xu, W. Li, Z. Peng, C. J. Weststrate, X. Yu,
    Y. He, Z. Cao, X. Wen, Y. Yang, K. Wu, Y. Li,
    J. W. Niemantsverdriet, und X. Zhou
    Science 375, 1188–1191 (2022)
    Read more
  3. (2022) NAP-XPS spectra of the bacterial cell-envelope of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria

    Pseudomonas fluorescens (Gram-negative) bacteria purchased from Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures were analyzed using high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at near ambient pressure conditions (NAP-XPS), 1500 Pa water vapor atmosphere. Fresh layers of P. fluorescence bacteria were grown on Luria Broth agar plates. Bacteria were taken from the agar plate with a sterile spatula and gently spread on a Si-wafer piece for NAP-XPS analysis. The NAP-XPS spectra of the bacterial envelope of P. fluorescence were obtained using monochromatic Al Kα radiation and include a survey scan and high-resolution spectra of C 1s, N 1s, P 2p, and O 1s as well. The presentation of the C 1s high-resolution spectrum includes the results of peak fitting analysis.



    M.Kjærvik, K. Schwibbert, P. M. Dietrich, and W. E. S. Unger
    Surface Science Spectra 29, 014008 (2022)
    Read more
  4. (2022) Testing the Cabrera–Mott Oxidation Model for Aluminum under Realistic Conditions with Near-Ambient Pressure Photoemission

    Using the nascent band theory of solids, Cabrera and Mott designed in the late 1940s a model for the low-temperature oxidation of metals that still stands today as a landmark. The core assumption is that an electric field set up in the growing oxide at thermodynamic equilibrium drives the transport of the ionic species responsible for the oxidation process. The existence of an electrostatic potential has long been sought experimentally by in situ measurement of the work function changes in the presence of gaseous O2. Here, we demonstrate that the work function measurement is insufficient to test the model. Instead, the oxide band structure characteristics (surface dipole energy barrier and band bending) should be followed. We exemplify this for the paradigmatic case of the Al(111) surface oxidation at room temperature using near-ambient pressure X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (operated up to a pressure of 1 mbar). Using an in situ spectroscopic tool, we monitor the oxide growth in real time and obtain detailed energetic information on the metal/oxide/gas system. This allows us to validate the central hypothesis of the Cabrera–Mott model (i.e., the existence of the Cabrera–Mott potential). The original assumption that oxygen anions are adsorbed at the oxide/gas interface is also discussed. The concept of “realistic conditions” also means that the issue of water coadsorption (inherent to near-ambient O2 conditions) is addressed. The specific consequences of the Cabrera–Mott regime of oxidation are also discussed with respect to the functioning of aluminum-based superconducting qubits. The in situ, real-time spectroscopic methodology used here is effective and can be generalized far beyond the specific case of aluminum oxidation.
     



    L. Pérez Ramírez, F. Bournel, J.-J. Gallet, L. Dudy and F. Rochet
    J. Phys. Chem. C 2022, acs.jpcc.1c09388.
    Read more
  5. (2022) In-depth analysis of iodine in artificial biofilm model layers by variable excitation energy XPS and argon gas cluster ion sputtering XPS

    Here we present a study on agarose thin-film samples that represent a model
    system for the exopolysaccharide matrix of biofilms. Povidone-iodide (PVP-I) was
    selected as an antibacterial agent to evaluate our XPS-based methodology to trace
    specific marker elements, here iodine, commonly found in organic matrices of
    antibiotics.
    The in-depth distribution of iodine was determined by XPS analyses with variable
    excitation energies and in combination with argon gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputter
    cycles. On mixed agarose/PVP-I nanometer thin films, both methods were found to solve
    the analytical task and deliver independently comparable results. In the mixed
    agarose/PVP-I thin-film we found the outermost surface layer depleted in iodine,
    whereas the iodine is homogeneously distributed in the depth region between this
    outermost surface layer and the interface between the thin-film and the substrate.
    Depletion of iodine from the uppermost surface in the thin-film samples is assumed to
    be caused by UHV exposure resulting in a loss of molecular iodine (I2) as reported earlier
    for other iodine-doped polymers.



    P. M. Dietrich, M. Kjærvik, E. A. Willneff, and W. E. S. Unger
    Biointerphases (Vol. 17, Issue 3)
    Read more
  6. (2021) Application of near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) in an in-situ analysis of the stability of the surface-supported metal-organic framework HKUST-1 in water, methanol and pyridine atmospheres

    Surface-supported metal-organic frameworks HKUST-1 (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) were used as a model system for a development of a near ambient pressure (NAP) XPS based approach to investigate interaction with atmospheres of water, methanol or pyridine at pressures ranging from 1 to 4 mbar. The films were grown on a gold substrate functionalized with a COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayer using liquid-phase epitaxy in a step-by-step fashion. Measurement protocols were developed and optimised for different gases in order to obtain spectra of similar quality in terms of signal intensity, noise and shape. Peak shapes were found to depend on the efficiency of charge compensation. Reference measurements in argon proved to be a useful strategy not only for the evaluation of the Cu(II)-fraction in pristine samples, but also to identify the contributions by the respective gas atmosphere to the C 1s and O 1s photoelectron spectra. Reduced copper was found during the exposition of HKUST-1 to water vapour and pyridine, but this effect was not observed in case of methanol. Additionally, it was established that there are no changes in relative Cu(II) percentage with increasing exposure time. This indicates that saturation was reached already at the lowest time of gas exposure. A detailed elucidation of the mechanism of Cu(II) reduction to Cu(I) in HKUST-1 mediated by water and pyridine is part of ongoing work and not in the scope of the present paper.



    M. Kjærvik, P. M. Dietrich, A. Thissen, J. Radnik, A. Nefedov, C. Natzeck, C. Wöll, und W. E.S. Unger
    Elsevier B.V. , 2021, 147042
    Read more
  7. (2021) Comparative Study of NAP-XPS and Cryo-XPS for the Investigation of Surface Chemistry of the Bacterial Cell-Envelope

    Bacteria generally interact with the environment via processes involving their cell-envelope. Thus, techniques that may shed light on their surface chemistry are attractive tools for providing an understanding of bacterial interactions. One of these tools is Al Kα-excited photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with its estimated information depth of <10 nm. XPS-analyses of bacteria have been performed for several decades on freeze-dried specimens in order to be compatible with the vacuum in the analysis chamber of the spectrometer. A limitation of these studies has been that the freeze-drying method may collapse cell structure as well as introduce surface contaminants. However, recent developments in XPS allow for analysis of biological samples at near ambient pressure (NAP-XPS) or as frozen hydrated specimens (cryo-XPS) in vacuum. In this work, we have analyzed bacterial samples from a reference strain of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens using both techniques. We compare the results obtained and, in general, observe good agreement between the two techniques. Furthermore, we discuss advantages and disadvantages with the two analysis approaches and the output data they provide. XPS reference data from the bacterial strain are provided, and we propose that planktonic cells of this strain (DSM 50090) are used as a reference material for surface chemical analysis of bacterial systems.



    M. Kjærvik, M. Ramstedt, K. Schwibbert, P. M. Dietrich and W. E. S. Unger
    Front. Chem., 30 April 2021
    Read more
  8. (2021) In situ monitoring of the influence of water on DNA radiation damage by near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Ionizing radiation damage to DNA plays a fundamental role in cancer therapy. X-ray photoelectron-spectroscopy (XPS) allows simultaneous irradiation and damage monitoring. Although water radiolysis is essential for radiation damage, all previous XPS studies were performed in vacuum. Here we present near-ambient-pressure XPS experiments to directly measure DNA damage under water atmosphere. They permit in-situ monitoring of the effects of radicals on fully hydrated double-stranded DNA. The results allow us to distinguish direct damage, by photons and secondary low-energy electrons (LEE), from damage by hydroxyl radicals or hydration induced modifications of damage pathways. The exposure of dry DNA to x-rays leads to strand-breaks at the sugar-phosphate backbone, while deoxyribose and nucleobases are less affected. In contrast, a strong increase of DNA damage is observed in water, where OH-radicals are produced. In consequence, base damage and base release become predominant, even though the number of strand-breaks increases further.



    M. Benjamin Hahn, P. M. Dietrich und J. Radnik
    Communications Chemistry volume 4, Article number: 50 (2021)
    Read more
  9. (2021) Enhanced Catalysis under 2D Silica: A CO Oxidation Study

    Interfacially confined microenvironments have recently gained attention in catalysis, as they can be used to modulate reaction chemistry. The emergence of a 2D nanospace at the interface between a 2D material and its support can promote varying kinetic and energetic schemes based on molecular level confinement effects imposed in this reduced volume. We report on the use of a 2D oxide cover, bilayer silica, on catalytically active Pd(111) undergoing the CO oxidation reaction. We “uncover” mechanistic insights about the structure‐activity relationship with and without a 2D silica overlayer using in situ IR and X‐ray spectroscopy and mass spectrometry methods. We find that the CO oxidation reaction on Pd(111) benefits from confinement effects imposed on surface adsorbates under 2D silica. This interaction results in a lower and more dispersed coverage of CO adsorbates with restricted CO adsorption geometries, which promote oxygen adsorption and lay the foundation for the formation of a reactive surface oxide that produces higher CO 2 formation rates than Pd alone.



    Calley Eads, J Anibal Boscoboinik, Ashley R Head, Adrian Hunt, Iradwikanari Waluyo, Dario J Stacchiola, Samuel A Tenney
    Angewandte Chemie is a journal of the German Chemical Society (GDCh).
    Read more
  10. (2021) Enhanced Catalysis under 2D Silica: A CO Oxidation Study

    Interfacially confined microenvironments have recently gained attention in catalysis, as they can be used to modulate reaction chemistry. The emergence of a 2D nanospace at the interface between a 2D material and its support can promote varying kinetic and energetic schemes based on molecular level confinement effects imposed in this reduced volume. We report on the use of a 2D oxide cover, bilayer silica, on catalytically active Pd(111) undergoing the CO oxidation reaction. We “uncover” mechanistic insights about the structure‐activity relationship with and without a 2D silica overlayer using in situ IR and X‐ray spectroscopy and mass spectrometry methods. We find that the CO oxidation reaction on Pd(111) benefits from confinement effects imposed on surface adsorbates under 2D silica. This interaction results in a lower and more dispersed coverage of CO adsorbates with restricted CO adsorption geometries, which promote oxygen adsorption and lay the foundation for the formation of a reactive surface oxide that produces higher CO 2 formation rates than Pd alone.



    C. Eads, J. A. Boscoboinik, A. R Head, A. Hunt, I. Waluyo, D. J. Stacchiola, and S. A Tenney
    Wiley, 18.01.2021
    Read more
  11. (2020) Polyethylene terephthalate by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey, C 1s, and O 1s NAP-XPS spectra of polyethylene terephthalate, a common, widely used thermoplastic. The C 1s envelope was fit with different approaches, i.e., to three, four, and five Gaussian–Lorentzian sum (GLS) functions. Hartree–Fock orbital energy calculations of a model trimer served as a guide to an additional fit of the C 1s envelope. The best fit was obtained by adding an extra component to the four-component fit to compensate for adventitious carbon or additives in the polymer. The O 1s signal was well fit with two GLS peaks with a 1:1 area ratio representing the C—O and C=O moieties in PET.



    Tahereh G. Avval, Grant T. Hodges, Joshua Wheeler, Daniel H. Ess, Stephan Bahr, Paul Dietrich, Michael Meyer, Andreas Thißen, and Matthew R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 27, 014006 (2020)
    Read more
  12. (2020) Roman coin, by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near ambient pressure-x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show survey, O 1s/Ag 3p, Ca 3p/Ag 3d, and extended valence band (0–130 eV) NAP-XPS spectra of an ancient Roman coin at three different positions. A small N 1s signal from N2 background gas is also observed. On the obverse side, the coin bears the bust of Licinius I. On the reverse side, it bears the image of Jupiter. The Ag 3d region indicates different amounts of silver at different oxidation states in different positions.



    Tahereh G. Avval, Sean C. Chapman, Jeffrey T. Chapman, Stephan Bahr, Paul Dietrich, Michael Meyer, Andreas Thißen, and Matthew R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 27, 014022 (2020)
    Read more
  13. (2020) Role of Water in Phase Transformations and Crystallization of Ferrihydrite and Hematite

    The oxides, hydroxides, and oxo-hydroxides of iron belong to the most abundant materials on earth. They also feature a wide range of practical applications. In many environments, they can undergo facile phase transformations and crystallization processes. Water appears to play a critical role in many of these processes. Despite numerous attempts, the role of water has not been fully revealed yet. We present a new approach to study the influence of water in the crystallization and phase transformations of iron oxides. The approach employs model-type iron oxide films that comprise a defined homogeneous nanostructure. The films are exposed to air containing different amounts of water reaching up to pressures of 10 bar. Ex situ analysis via scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and X-ray diffraction is combined with operando near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to follow water-induced changes in hematite and ferrihydrite. Water proves to be critical for the nucleation of hematite domains in ferrihydrite, the resulting crystallite orientation, and the underlying crystallization mechanism.



    A. Arinchtein, R. Schmack, K. Kraffert, J. Radnik, P. Dietrich, . Sachse, R. Kraehnert
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
    Read more
  14. (2020) Effects of Background Gas Composition and Pressure on 1,4-Polymyrcene (and Polytetrafluoroethylene) Spectra in near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure XPS (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at 2500 Pa or greater. With NAP-XPS, XPS can analyze moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission we show C 1s, O 1s and survey NAP-XPS spectra from 1,4-polymyrcene. The C 1s and O 1s envelopes are fit with Gaussian-Lorentzian product, asymmetric Lorentzian, and Gaussian-Lorentzian sum functions, respectively. Water vapor and argon are used to control sample charging, and the corresponding signals from the gases are present in the survey spectra. The effect of background gas pressure on photoelectron attenuation is illustrated with a sample of polytetrafluoroethylene.



    Dhananjay I. Patel, Aleksandar Matic, Helmut Schlaad, Stephan Bahr, Paul Dietrich, Michael Meyer, Andreas Thißen, Sven Tougaard, and Matthew R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra (Vol.27, Issue 1)
    Read more
  15. (2020) Probing Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes with Laboratory Near-Ambient Pressure XPS

    In this article, we present Near Ambient Pressure (NAP)-X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results from model and commercial liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion battery production using an automated laboratory NAP-XPS system. The electrolyte solutions were (i) LiPF6 in EC/DMC (LP30) as a typical commercial battery electrolyte and (ii) LiTFSI in PC as a model electrolyte. We analyzed the LP30 electrolyte solution, first in its vapor and liquid phase to compare individual core-level spectra. In a second step, we immersed a V2O5 crystal as a model cathode material in this LiPF6 solution. Additionally, the LiTFSI electrolyte model system was studied to compare and verify our findings with previous NAP-XPS data. Photoelectron spectra recorded at pressures of 2–10 mbar show significant chemical differences for the different lithium-based electrolytes. We show the enormous potential of laboratory NAP-XPS instruments for investigations of solid-liquid interfaces in electrochemical energy storage systems at elevated pressures and illustrate the simplicity and ease of the used experimental setup (EnviroESCA).



    P. M. Dietrich, L. Gehrlein, J. Maibach and A.Thissen
    Crystals 2020, 10(11), 1056
    Read more
  16. (2020) Present and new frontiers in materials research by ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    In this topical review we catagorise all ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
    publications that have appeared between the 1970s and the end of 2018 according to their
    scientific field. We find that catalysis, surface science and materials science are predominant,
    while, for example, electrocatalysis and thin film growth are emerging. All catalysis
    publications that we could identify are cited, and selected case stories with increasing
    complexity in terms of surface structure or chemical reaction are discussed. For thin film
    growth we discuss recent examples from chemical vapour deposition and atomic layer
    deposition. Finally, we also discuss current frontiers of ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron
    spectroscopy research, indicating some directions of future development of the field.
    Keywords: ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation,
    catalysis, atomic layer deposition, chemical vapour deposition, operando



    J. Schnadt, J. Knudsen, and N. Johansson
    J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 32 (2020) 413003 (29pp)
    Read more
  17. (2019) Nitrogen gas (N2), by near-ambient pressure XPS

    Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at ca. 2500 Pa, or even higher in some cases. With NAP-XPS, XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show NAP-XPS survey and narrow scans from nitrogen gas (N2), a material that could not be analyzed at moderate pressures by conventional approaches. Nitrogen gas is an important reference material for NAP-XPS because residual N2 from the air and/or venting produces an N 1s signal in many NAP-XPS spectra. Nitrogen gas may also be deliberately employed as the gaseous background for NAP-XPS experiments. The survey spectrum of N2 gas contains N 1s, N 2s, N KLL (Auger), and valence band signals. This submission is part of a series of articles on NAP-XPS that has been submitted to Surface Science Spectra.



    D. Shah, S. Bahr, P. Dietrich, M. Meyer, A. Thißen, M. R. Linford
    Surface Science Spectra 26, 014023 (2019)
    Read more
  18. (2019) Characterization of Fe2+ Aqueous Solutions with Liquid Jet X‑ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Chloride Depletion at the Liquid/ Vapor Interface Due to Complexation with Fe2+

    Liquid jet X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used under near ambient pressure conditions to characterize Fe2+ aqueous solutions. Counter ions, such as Cl and Brions, added to the solution lead to changes in the first solvation sphere of the Fe-aqua complex in solution. Binding energy shifts of 0.4 eV to lower binding energy are observed in the Cl 2p spectra, 2 eV to higher binding energy in the Fe 2p spectra and no shifts are observed in the Br 3d spectra. Depletion of the Cl species is observed at the interface,
    caused by coordination with Fe2. Depletion of Cl at the liquid/vapor interface may have significant impacts on oxidative chemistry at the interface of atmospheric aerosols that contain both chloride and iron. The Cl complexation with the Fe2+ ions will also affect the Fenton chemistry that is dependent on this metal ion.



    J. P. Bruce and J. C. Hemminger
    J. Phys. Chem. B 2019, 123, 8285−8290
    Read more
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