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High Performance Hemispherical Energy Analyzer with 1D-DLD Detector for UPS, XPS, ISS and LEISS. 

The PHOIBOS 150 hemispherical energy analyzer is a powerful tool for modern photoelectron spectroscopy. This analyzer can be operated in all relevant analysis modes, such as XPS, UPS, as well as AES, ISS and LEISS. Its design and the modular supplementary hardware makes this analyzer the most versatile PES analyzer in the market. It can easily be upgraded with all available SPECS detection systems. 

The integrated 1D-DLD detector is the best performing detection system available. The direct detection of electron signals yield quantitative counts per second (cps). The powerful electronics can aquire ultrafast snapshot measurements of the energy spectrum with up to 1200 energy channels as well as continous sweeping energy spectra. Its low dark count rate and high linearity make this detector outstanding for XPS analyis. 

The energy analyzer section is equipped with 8 customizable entrance and 3 exit slits for UPS and XPS. The analyzer comes with a highly stable power supply, the HSA 3500 plus, for best performance in a wide kinetic energy range up to 3500 eV kinetic energy.


  • High Performance Analyzer for XPS, UPS, AES, ISS and LEIS
  • Quantitative Analysis
  • High Count Rate and Linearity
  • Low Noise and Dark Count Rate
  • 65 mm Detector Area
  • Fast Snapshot Measurements
  • Double µ-Metal Shielding




Energy Dispersion by



8 Entrance, 3 Exit slits and Iris aperture

Lens Modes

  • Angular resolved Mode
  • Transmission Mode
  • Spatially resolved Mode
  • Acceptance Angle


    Kinetic Energy Range

    0 - 3500 eV

    Pass Energies

    0 - 550 eV continously adjustable


    1D-DLD Detector

    Detector Channels

    Max. 960 energy channels (240 and 120 channels for binning 4 and 8, respectively)

    Measurement Modes

  • Snapshot Mode
  • Sweeping Mode
  • Fixed Mode
  • Energy Window

    20% of Pass Energy


    HSA 3500 plus HT 100

    Working Pressure

    10-11 to 10-7 mbar

    Angular Resolution

    < 0.5°

    Energy Resolution

    <5 meV for XPS

    Lateral Resolution

    < 100 µm

    XPS Count Rates UHV

    Ag 3d measured with XR 50 300 W MgKa > 3 Mcps @ 0.85 eV, > 9 Mcps @ 1.00 eV

    Mounting Flange

    DN100 CF

    Magnetic Shielding

    Double µ-Metal Shielding

    Working Distance

    40 mm

    Electric Isolation

    up to 7 keV



    1. (2023) Near ambient pressure–x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of lithium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl) imide in propylene carbonate

      Near ambient pressure–x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at greater than 5000 Pa. NAP-XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show the survey, Li 1s, S 2p, C 1s, N 1s, O 1s, and F 1s NAP-XPS spectra of a Li-based electrolyte solution, which is a material that would be difficult to analyze by conventional XPS. The measurements were performed at 200 Pa in ambient gas atmosphere to compensate for surface charging. Peak fits of the C 1s, O 1s, and F 1s narrow scans are presented.

      Paul M. Dietrich, Lydia Gerlein, Julia Maibach, Andreas Thissen
      J. Appl. Phys. 30, 014002 (2023)
      Read more
    2. (2023) NAP-XPS spectra of Lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in ethylene /dimethyl carbonate

      Near ambient pressure – X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., at greater than 5000 Pa. NAP-XPS can probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. In this submission, we show the survey, Li 1s, P 2p, C 1s, N 1s, O 1s, and F1s NAP-XPS spectra of a Li-based electrolyte solution, which is a material that would be difficult to analyze by conventional XPS. The measurements were performed at 1000 Pa in ambient gas atmosphere to compensate for surface charging. Peak fits of the C 1s, O 1s, and F 1s narrow scans are presented.

      Paul M. Dietrich, Andreas Thissen
      Surface Science Spectra 30, 014003 (2023)
      Read more
    3. (2021) Enhanced Catalysis under 2D Silica: A CO Oxidation Study

      Interfacially confined microenvironments have recently gained attention in catalysis, as they can be used to modulate reaction chemistry. The emergence of a 2D nanospace at the interface between a 2D material and its support can promote varying kinetic and energetic schemes based on molecular level confinement effects imposed in this reduced volume. We report on the use of a 2D oxide cover, bilayer silica, on catalytically active Pd(111) undergoing the CO oxidation reaction. We “uncover” mechanistic insights about the structure‐activity relationship with and without a 2D silica overlayer using in situ IR and X‐ray spectroscopy and mass spectrometry methods. We find that the CO oxidation reaction on Pd(111) benefits from confinement effects imposed on surface adsorbates under 2D silica. This interaction results in a lower and more dispersed coverage of CO adsorbates with restricted CO adsorption geometries, which promote oxygen adsorption and lay the foundation for the formation of a reactive surface oxide that produces higher CO 2 formation rates than Pd alone.

      Calley Eads, J Anibal Boscoboinik, Ashley R Head, Adrian Hunt, Iradwikanari Waluyo, Dario J Stacchiola, Samuel A Tenney
      Angewandte Chemie is a journal of the German Chemical Society (GDCh).
      Read more
    4. (2020) Bimetallic Metal-Organic Framework Mediated Synthesis of Ni-Co Catalysts for the Dry Reforming of Methane

      Dry reforming of methane (DRM) involves the conversion of CO2 and CH4, the most important greenhouse gases, into syngas, a stoichiometric mixture of H2 and CO that can be further processed via Fischer–Tropsch chemistry into a wide variety of products. However, the devolvement of the coke resistant catalyst, especially at high pressures, is still hampering commercial applications. One of the relatively new approaches for the synthesis of metal nanoparticle based catalysts comprises the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as catalyst precursors. In this work we have explored MOF-74/CPO-27 MOFs as precursors for the synthesis of Ni, Co and bimetallic Ni-Co metal nanoparticles. Our results show that the bimetallic system produced through pyrolysis of a Ni-Co@CMOF-74 precursor displays the best activity at moderate pressures, with stable performance during at least 10 h at 700 °C, 5 bar and 33 L·h−1·g−1.

      Il S. Khan, A. Ramirez, G. Shterk, L. Garzón-Tovar and J.Gascon
      Catalysts 2020, 10(5), 592
      Read more
    5. (2020) Probing Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes with Laboratory Near-Ambient Pressure XPS

      In this article, we present Near Ambient Pressure (NAP)-X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) results from model and commercial liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion battery production using an automated laboratory NAP-XPS system. The electrolyte solutions were (i) LiPF6 in EC/DMC (LP30) as a typical commercial battery electrolyte and (ii) LiTFSI in PC as a model electrolyte. We analyzed the LP30 electrolyte solution, first in its vapor and liquid phase to compare individual core-level spectra. In a second step, we immersed a V2O5 crystal as a model cathode material in this LiPF6 solution. Additionally, the LiTFSI electrolyte model system was studied to compare and verify our findings with previous NAP-XPS data. Photoelectron spectra recorded at pressures of 2–10 mbar show significant chemical differences for the different lithium-based electrolytes. We show the enormous potential of laboratory NAP-XPS instruments for investigations of solid-liquid interfaces in electrochemical energy storage systems at elevated pressures and illustrate the simplicity and ease of the used experimental setup (EnviroESCA).

      P. M. Dietrich, L. Gehrlein, J. Maibach and A.Thissen
      Crystals 2020, 10(11), 1056
      Read more
    6. (2019) Insights into the role of Zn and Ga in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol over Pd

      The hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol is a viable alternative for reducing greenhouse gases net emissions as well as a route for hydrogen storage and transportation. In this context, the synthesis of active and selective catalysts is a relevant objective. In this work, we study the promotion of Pd with Ga and Zn in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol at 800 kPa and 220–280 °C. Mono and intermetallic catalysts (Pd/SiO2, PdGa/SiO2 and Pd-Zn/SiO2) were synthesized by incipient wetness impregnation with the aid of triethanolamine as an organic additive, obtaining similar average metal particle sizes (between 9 and 12 nm). Kinetic analysis reveals that the addition of Ga and Zn increases the turnover frequency for methanol formation by an order of magnitude without significant changes in the reaction rate of the reverse water-gas shift (r-WGS) which is a parallel undesired reaction. The selectivity to methanol (at 220 °C) thus increases from 3% for Pd/SiO2 to 12% for Pd-Ga/SiO2 and 30% for Pd-Zn/SiO2. XPS studies, Infrared analysis of CO adsorption, and XRD analyses show the presence of intermetallic phases Pd2Ga and PdZn on the surface. The results suggest that Ga and Zn promote Pd, increasing its activity towards the synthesis of methanol, by creating more active sites for this reaction. These sites are likely formed by intermetallic compounds such as Pd2Ga and PdZn.

      R. Manrique, R. Jiménez, J. Rodríguez-Pereira, V. G. Baldovino-Medrano, and A. Karelovic
      International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 44, Issue 31, 21 June 2019, Pages 16526-16536
      Read more
    7. (2019) Catalytic furfural hydrogenation to furfuryl alcohol over Cu/SiO2 catalysts: A comparative study of the preparation methods

      Furfuryl alcohol, a vital intermediate for the production of foundry resins, fragrances, pharmaceuticals and
      pesticide, is produced by hydrogenation of furfural in gas phase or liquid phase. The furfuryl alcohol production
      in gas phase over silica supported copper catalyst is favored thanks to the environmental and technical advantages.
      The effect of preparation methods of silica supported copper catalysts on the structure and performance
      was investigated by means of ICP, N2 physisorption, ex-situ/in-situ XRD, in-situ XPS, FT-IR, H2-TPR, TEM,
      N2O titration, TG as well as furfural hydrogenation. The results indicated that the different catalyst synthesis
      strategies led to the diverse copper species in the calcined samples and disparate Cu0 surface area as well as
      different molar ratio of Cu+/(Cu++Cu0) in the fresh samples. The performance of impregnation derived
      sample was poorer than that of commercial CuCr-Strem catalyst. The catalysts prepared by deposition precipitation
      and ion exchange exhibited similar performance to the CuCr-Strem. The ammonia evaporation derived
      catalyst (Cu/SiO2-EA) showed superior performance in the activity, selectivity and stability among all the studied
      catalysts. The excellent performance was related to the highest surface area of Cu0, smallest copper particle
      size, large surface area and pore volume as well as appropriate higher Cu+/(Cu++Cu0) ratio. Furthermore, all
      the copper catalysts went through deactivation, which was caused by carbon deposition, during the reaction.
      Owing to the largest amount of Cu0 sites and large SBET, the Cu/SiO2-EA exhibited the slowest deactivation rate.

      H. Dua, X. Ma, P. Yana, M. Jianga, Z.Zhaoa and C. Zhang
      Fuel Processing Technology
      Volume 193, October 2019, Pages 221-231
      Read more
    8. (2018) Diffusion induced atomic islands on the surface of Ni/Cu nanolayers

      Surface islands formed by grain-boundary diffusion has been studied in Ni/Cu nanolayers by in-situ low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and ex-situ depth profiling based on ion sputtering. In this paper a new experimental approach of measurement of grain-boundary diffusion coefficients is presented. Appearing time of copper atoms diffused through a few nanometer thick nickel layer has been detected by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy with high sensitivity. The grain-boundary diffusion coefficient can be directly calculated from this appearing time without using segregation factors in calculations. The temperature range of 423–463 K insures the pure C-type diffusion kinetic regime. The most important result is that surface coverage of Ni layer by Cu atoms reaches a maximum during annealing and stays constant if the annealing procedure is continued. Scanning probe microscopy measurements show a Volmer-Weber type layer growth of Cu layer on the Ni surface in the form of Cu atomic islands. Depth distribution of Cu in Ni layer has been determined by depth profile analysis.

      V. Takáts, A. Csik, J. Hakl, K. Vad
      Applied Surface Science 440, pp. 275-281
      Read more
    9. (2017) Catalytic consequences of Ga promotion on Cu for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol

      The promotion of Ga on SiO2 supported Cu in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol at 800 kPa and 200–280 °C was investigated. Cu/SiO2 and CuGa/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by a water-in-oil microemulsion technique resulting in Cu clusters of 4–6.5 nm. It was found that Ga addition increased the methanol formation rate by an order of magnitude without significantly changing that for reverse water gas shift (RWGS). This trend is also evidenced by the decrease in the apparent activation barrier for methanol formation from 78 (for Cu/SiO2) to 26–39 kJ mol−1 when Ga was added, but not for RWGS (107–132 kJ mol−1). Kinetic and in situ DRIFTS analyses revealed that formate intermediates are adsorbed on both Cu and Ga2O3 and that methoxy hydrogenation could be the rate determining step of methanol synthesis. In the case of RWGS, a zero order of CO formation with respect to H2 concentration was consistent with a redox mechanism and with the reaction occurring predominantly on Cu sites. The results suggest that Ga promotes Cu increasing methanol selectivity, likely by creating new active sites for methanol formation without modifying its oxidation state, which under reaction conditions remains mostly metallic.

      J. C. Medina, M. Figueroa, R. Manrique, J. R. Pereira, P. D. Srinivasan, J. J. Bravo-Suárez, V. G. Baldovino Medrano, R. Jiméneza and A. Karelovic
      Catal. Sci. Technol., 2017,7, 3375-3387
      Read more
    10. (2017) Trimetalic Heterogeneous Catalyst for Dehydrogenation of Formic Acid with Enhanced CO Tolerance

      Hydrogen energy is considered to be a promising alternative for the sustainable and environmentally friendly solution of the global energy problem. One of the major obstacles of hydrogen energy applications is to maintain safe and efficient storage of hydrogen which can also be achieved chemically using suitable carrier materials. Formic acid (HCOOH, FA) can be utilized as a hydrogen carrier due to its low molecular weight (46 g/mol) and high hydrogen density (%4.4 weight). FA is a stable, non-flammable, and non-toxic biomass side-product rendering it a perfect candidate for an alternative hydrogen vector. Design of novel heterogeneous catalysts which can substitute the existing homogeneous catalytic systems may allow overcoming catalyst isolation and recovery costs and associated logistical problems hindering their applications in on-board operations.

      FA can be catalytically decomposed via dehydrogenation and dehydration reactions. Selective dehydrogenation of FA is crucial because, the production of CO from dehydration mechanism can suppress the activity of the catalyst by blocking/poisoning the precious metal sites. Consequently, development of CO-resistant, selective, catalytically active, and reusable heterogeneous catalysts has a great significance. In the current work, a new material that can produce H2(g) from FA under ambient conditions in the absence of additives with high CO-poisoning tolerance will be introduced, which is comprised of Pd-based trimetallic active centers functionalized with Ag and Cr in addition to amine-functionalized MnOx promoters dispersed on a SiO2 support surface.

      E. Perşembe
      Perşembe, E. (2017). (Unpublished Thesis)
      Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey.
      Read more
    11. (2016) Thin films of pure vanadium nitride: Evidence for anomalous nonfaradaic capacitance

      An impressive gravimetric capacitance of 1300 F g−1 (surface capacitance ∼3.3 mF cm−2) reported by Choi et al., 2006 for nanosized vanadium nitride has stimulated considerable interest in vanadium nitride as a potential electrode material for energy storing systems – supercapacitors. The postulated mechanism of charge storage in vanadium nitride materials involves redox reactions in the thin surface layer of vanadium oxide while the core vanadium nitride serves exclusively as a conducting platform. In this study we have synthesized pure oxygen-free vanadium nitride films and have found that they are capable of delivering a surface capacitance of up to ∼3 mF cm−2 at a potential scan rate of 3 mV s−1 and ∼2 mF cm−2 at a potential scan rate of 1 V s−1 in aqueous electrolytes. Combining electrochemical testing with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization has revealed that redox reactions play no or little role in the electrochemical response of pure VN, in contrast to the common wisdom stemming from the electrochemical response of oxygen-containing films. An alternative charge storage mechanism – space charge accumulation in a subsurface layer of ∼100 nm – was put forward to explain the experimentally observed capacitance of VN films in aqueous electrolytes.

      O. Bondarchuk, A. Morel, D. Bèlanger, E. Goikolea, T. Brousse, R. Mysyk
      Journal of Power Sources 324, pp. 439-446
      Read more
    12. (2015) Electrochemical lithiation of thin silicon based layers potentiostatically deposited from ionic liquid

      Thin silicon layers containing about 20% carbon and 20% oxygen were deposited on copper substrates by potentiostatic electroreduction from a 1 M SiCl4 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethyl) sulfonylimide [BMP][TFSI] electrolyte. The electrodeposition process was investigated by means of voltammetric techniques, coupled with in-situ microgravimetry (quartz crystal microbalance, QCM). The electrochemical and QCM data suggest a possible contribution of a partial Si4+ to Si2+ reduction and/or a restructuring of the metallic substrate. Considerable impact of side reactions parallel to the deposition process was indicated by QCM measurements performed under potentiostatic and potentiodynamic conditions. The deposition of silicon-based films was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Analysis of the chemical composition of the deposit and its elemental distribution were achieved by depth profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrodeposited silicon containing layers showed stable lithiation and delithiation with capacity values of about 1200 mAhg−1 and 80% capacity retention after 300 cycles in standard EC/DMC electrolytes. In ionic liquid (IL) the material displayed lower capacity of ca. 500 mAhg−1, which can be attributed to the higher viscosity of this electrolyte and deposition of IL decomposition products during lithiation.

      C. A. Vlaic, S. Ivanov, R. Peipmann, A. Eisenhardt, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, A. Bund
      Electochimica Acta 168, pp. 403-413
      Read more
    13. (2004) 48-Channel electron detector for photoemission spectroscopy and microscopy

      We show that it is possible to use a multichannel electron detector in a zone plate based photoemission spectromicroscopy in a snap shot mode to reduce the total acquisition time for a given counting time by 50% relative to the standard scanning mode while preserving the feature of the spectra. We describe the result of tests performed at Elettra using its microbeam (150 nm) together with a 48-channel detector designed for the PHOIBOS 100 analyzer optimized for extremely small x-ray sources. We also give a short summary of the technical features of the detector and describe one possible calibration procedure for its use in the snap shot mode. We show initial results from using this device to perform chemical maps of surfaces at a resolution of 150 nm.

      L. Gregoratti, A. Barinov, E. Benfatto, G. Cautero, C. Fava, P. Lacovig, D. Lonza, M. Kiskinova, R. Tommasini, S. Mähl, W. Heichler
      Rev. Sci. Instr. 75 (1), pp. 64-68
      Read more


    Product image
    Product description
    Article No.
    Channelplates set (1 pair MCP)

    Spare channelplate set for PHOIBOS150 1D-DLD 60 mm

    DN40CF 4-fold SMB Feedthrough for DLD

    Spare electrical feedthrough for all DLD detectors. Connection flange for the ACU unit

    Cu gasket for PHOIBOS 150

    PHOIBOS 150 analyzer main flange gasket for Releases R5, R6, R7

    Rotary feedthrough for IRIS

    Replacement feedthrough for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

    Spindle with Spur and Bevel Gear for Iris

    Replacement spindle for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

    Tubus 3 with Iris

    Replacement iris mechanism for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6



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