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PHOIBOS 150 1D-DLD

High Performance Hemipsherical Energy Analyzer with 1D-DLD Detector for UPS, XPS, ISS and LEISS. 

The PHOIBOS 150 hemispherical energy analyzer is a powerful tool for modern photoelectron spectroscopy. This analyzer can be operated in all relevant analysis modes, such as XPS, UPS, as well as AES, ISS and LEISS. Its design and the modular supplementary hardware makes this analyzer the most versatile PES analyzer in the market. It can easily be upgraded with all available SPECS detection systems. 

The integrated 1D-DLD detector is the best performing detection system available. The direct detection of electron signals yield quantitative counts per second (cps). The powerful electronics can aquire ultrafast snapshot measurements of the energy spectrum with up to 1200 energy channels as well as continous sweeping energy spectra. Its low dark count rate and high linearity make this detector outstanding for XPS analyis. 

The energy analyzer section is equipped with 8 customizable entrance and 3 exit slits for UPS and XPS. The analyzer comes with a highly stable power supply, the HSA 3500 plus, for best performance in a wide kinetic energy range up to 3500 eV kinetic energy.

KEY FEATURES

  • High Performance Analyzer for XPS, UPS, AES, ISS and LEIS
  • Quantitative Analysis
  • High Count Rate and Linearity
  • Low Noise and Dark Count Rate
  • 65 mm Detector Area
  • Fast Snapshot Measurements
  • Double µ-Metal Shielding
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MADE FOR THESE METHODS

2
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APPLICATION NOTES

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PUBLICATIONS

  1. (2019) Insights into the role of Zn and Ga in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol over Pd

    The hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol is a viable alternative for reducing greenhouse gases net emissions as well as a route for hydrogen storage and transportation. In this context, the synthesis of active and selective catalysts is a relevant objective. In this work, we study the promotion of Pd with Ga and Zn in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol at 800 kPa and 220–280 °C. Mono and intermetallic catalysts (Pd/SiO2, PdGa/SiO2 and Pd-Zn/SiO2) were synthesized by incipient wetness impregnation with the aid of triethanolamine as an organic additive, obtaining similar average metal particle sizes (between 9 and 12 nm). Kinetic analysis reveals that the addition of Ga and Zn increases the turnover frequency for methanol formation by an order of magnitude without significant changes in the reaction rate of the reverse water-gas shift (r-WGS) which is a parallel undesired reaction. The selectivity to methanol (at 220 °C) thus increases from 3% for Pd/SiO2 to 12% for Pd-Ga/SiO2 and 30% for Pd-Zn/SiO2. XPS studies, Infrared analysis of CO adsorption, and XRD analyses show the presence of intermetallic phases Pd2Ga and PdZn on the surface. The results suggest that Ga and Zn promote Pd, increasing its activity towards the synthesis of methanol, by creating more active sites for this reaction. These sites are likely formed by intermetallic compounds such as Pd2Ga and PdZn.



    R. Manrique, R. Jiménez, J. Rodríguez-Pereira, V. G. Baldovino-Medrano, and A. Karelovic
    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 44, Issue 31, 21 June 2019, Pages 16526-16536
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  2. (2018) Diffusion induced atomic islands on the surface of Ni/Cu nanolayers

    Surface islands formed by grain-boundary diffusion has been studied in Ni/Cu nanolayers by in-situ low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and ex-situ depth profiling based on ion sputtering. In this paper a new experimental approach of measurement of grain-boundary diffusion coefficients is presented. Appearing time of copper atoms diffused through a few nanometer thick nickel layer has been detected by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy with high sensitivity. The grain-boundary diffusion coefficient can be directly calculated from this appearing time without using segregation factors in calculations. The temperature range of 423–463 K insures the pure C-type diffusion kinetic regime. The most important result is that surface coverage of Ni layer by Cu atoms reaches a maximum during annealing and stays constant if the annealing procedure is continued. Scanning probe microscopy measurements show a Volmer-Weber type layer growth of Cu layer on the Ni surface in the form of Cu atomic islands. Depth distribution of Cu in Ni layer has been determined by depth profile analysis.



    V. Takáts, A. Csik, J. Hakl, K. Vad
    Applied Surface Science 440, pp. 275-281
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  3. (2017) Catalytic consequences of Ga promotion on Cu for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol

    The promotion of Ga on SiO2 supported Cu in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol at 800 kPa and 200–280 °C was investigated. Cu/SiO2 and CuGa/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by a water-in-oil microemulsion technique resulting in Cu clusters of 4–6.5 nm. It was found that Ga addition increased the methanol formation rate by an order of magnitude without significantly changing that for reverse water gas shift (RWGS). This trend is also evidenced by the decrease in the apparent activation barrier for methanol formation from 78 (for Cu/SiO2) to 26–39 kJ mol−1 when Ga was added, but not for RWGS (107–132 kJ mol−1). Kinetic and in situ DRIFTS analyses revealed that formate intermediates are adsorbed on both Cu and Ga2O3 and that methoxy hydrogenation could be the rate determining step of methanol synthesis. In the case of RWGS, a zero order of CO formation with respect to H2 concentration was consistent with a redox mechanism and with the reaction occurring predominantly on Cu sites. The results suggest that Ga promotes Cu increasing methanol selectivity, likely by creating new active sites for methanol formation without modifying its oxidation state, which under reaction conditions remains mostly metallic.



    J. C. Medina, M. Figueroa, R. Manrique, J. R. Pereira, P. D. Srinivasan, J. J. Bravo-Suárez, V. G. Baldovino Medrano, R. Jiméneza and A. Karelovic
    Catal. Sci. Technol., 2017,7, 3375-3387
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  4. (2016) Thin films of pure vanadium nitride: Evidence for anomalous nonfaradaic capacitance

    An impressive gravimetric capacitance of 1300 F g−1 (surface capacitance ∼3.3 mF cm−2) reported by Choi et al., 2006 for nanosized vanadium nitride has stimulated considerable interest in vanadium nitride as a potential electrode material for energy storing systems – supercapacitors. The postulated mechanism of charge storage in vanadium nitride materials involves redox reactions in the thin surface layer of vanadium oxide while the core vanadium nitride serves exclusively as a conducting platform. In this study we have synthesized pure oxygen-free vanadium nitride films and have found that they are capable of delivering a surface capacitance of up to ∼3 mF cm−2 at a potential scan rate of 3 mV s−1 and ∼2 mF cm−2 at a potential scan rate of 1 V s−1 in aqueous electrolytes. Combining electrochemical testing with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization has revealed that redox reactions play no or little role in the electrochemical response of pure VN, in contrast to the common wisdom stemming from the electrochemical response of oxygen-containing films. An alternative charge storage mechanism – space charge accumulation in a subsurface layer of ∼100 nm – was put forward to explain the experimentally observed capacitance of VN films in aqueous electrolytes.



    O. Bondarchuk, A. Morel, D. Bèlanger, E. Goikolea, T. Brousse, R. Mysyk
    Journal of Power Sources 324, pp. 439-446
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  5. (2015) Electrochemical lithiation of thin silicon based layers potentiostatically deposited from ionic liquid

    Thin silicon layers containing about 20% carbon and 20% oxygen were deposited on copper substrates by potentiostatic electroreduction from a 1 M SiCl4 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethyl) sulfonylimide [BMP][TFSI] electrolyte. The electrodeposition process was investigated by means of voltammetric techniques, coupled with in-situ microgravimetry (quartz crystal microbalance, QCM). The electrochemical and QCM data suggest a possible contribution of a partial Si4+ to Si2+ reduction and/or a restructuring of the metallic substrate. Considerable impact of side reactions parallel to the deposition process was indicated by QCM measurements performed under potentiostatic and potentiodynamic conditions. The deposition of silicon-based films was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Analysis of the chemical composition of the deposit and its elemental distribution were achieved by depth profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrodeposited silicon containing layers showed stable lithiation and delithiation with capacity values of about 1200 mAhg−1 and 80% capacity retention after 300 cycles in standard EC/DMC electrolytes. In ionic liquid (IL) the material displayed lower capacity of ca. 500 mAhg−1, which can be attributed to the higher viscosity of this electrolyte and deposition of IL decomposition products during lithiation.



    C. A. Vlaic, S. Ivanov, R. Peipmann, A. Eisenhardt, M. Himmerlich, S. Krischok, A. Bund
    Electochimica Acta 168, pp. 403-413
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  6. (2004) 48-Channel electron detector for photoemission spectroscopy and microscopy

    We show that it is possible to use a multichannel electron detector in a zone plate based photoemission spectromicroscopy in a snap shot mode to reduce the total acquisition time for a given counting time by 50% relative to the standard scanning mode while preserving the feature of the spectra. We describe the result of tests performed at Elettra using its microbeam (150 nm) together with a 48-channel detector designed for the PHOIBOS 100 analyzer optimized for extremely small x-ray sources. We also give a short summary of the technical features of the detector and describe one possible calibration procedure for its use in the snap shot mode. We show initial results from using this device to perform chemical maps of surfaces at a resolution of 150 nm.



    L. Gregoratti, A. Barinov, E. Benfatto, G. Cautero, C. Fava, P. Lacovig, D. Lonza, M. Kiskinova, R. Tommasini, S. Mähl, W. Heichler
    Rev. Sci. Instr. 75 (1), pp. 64-68
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SPARE PARTS

6
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Product description
Article No.
 
Channelplates set (1 pair MCP)

Spare channelplate set for PHOIBOS150 1D-DLD 60 mm

2060007056
DN40CF 4-fold SMB Feedthrough for DLD

Spare electrical feedthrough for all DLD detectors. Connection flange for the ACU unit

2100011768
Cu gasket for PHOIBOS 150

PHOIBOS 150 analyzer main flange gasket for Releases R5, R6, R7

2074050088
Rotary feedthrough for IRIS

Replacement feedthrough for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

2060001175
Spindle with Spur and Bevel Gear for Iris

Replacement spindle for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

2055021656
Tubus 3 with Iris

Replacement iris mechanism for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6

2079150291
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