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Near Ambient Pressure HAXPES System with High Flux Small Spot Monochromated Cr (5.4 keV) X-ray Source for Laboratory Experiments

The NAP-HAXPES system is a perfect answer to the increased demand to work in NAP-HAXPES regime under laboratory environment. HAXPES experiments were performed usually at high energy beamlines of synchrotrons. The development of monochromated and non-monochromated X-ray sources for laboratory, made the HAXPES technique easily accessible. The combination of a  µ-FOCUS 780 HE NAP monochromated X-ray source with Cr anode (5.4 keV), adapted for the use in NAP regime, with a PHOIBOS 150 HV NAP hemispherical analyzer is ideally suited for studies of interfaces under reactive conditions.


  • Powerful and easy to use systems for studies under near ambient pressure conditions
  • High performance PHOIBOS 150 NAP HV electron analyzer HAXPES compatible up to 7 keV
  • High flux small spot monochromated Cr (5.4 keV) X-ray source
  • Working pressure range from UHV to 50 mbar
  • Optional IR laser heating in gaseous environments
  • Customizable gas handling systems
  • Efficient upgrade options due to modular system concept
  • Well established and proven performance with  a large installed base worldwide




  1. (2021) <p>A comparative study of electrochemical cells for in situ x-ray spectroscopies in the soft and tender x-ray range</p>

    n situ x-ray spectroscopies offer a powerful way to understand the electronic structure of the electrode–electrolyte interface under operating conditions. However, most x-ray techniques require vacuum, making it necessary to design spectro-electrochemical cells with a delicate interface to the wet electrochemical environment. The design of the cell often dictates what measurements can be done and which electrochemical processes can be studied. Hence, it is important to pick the right spectro-electrochemical cell for the process of interest. To facilitate this choice, and to highlight the challenges in cell design, we critically review four recent, successful cell designs. Using several case studies, we investigate the opportunities and limitations that arise in practical experiments.

    J.-J. Velasco-Vélez, L. J. Falling, D. Bernsmeier, M. J Sear, P. C. J. Clark, T.-S. Chan, E. Stotz, M. Hävecker, R. Kraehnert, and A. Knop-Gericke
    Juan-Jesús Velasco-Vélez et al 2021 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54 124003
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  2. (2021) <p>In situ investigation of the bismuth vanadate/potassium phosphate interface reveals morphological and composition dependent light-induced surface reactions</p>

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is an established n-type oxide semiconductor for photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution. Direct charge carrier recombination at the solid/liquid interface is a major cause of efficiency loss in BiVO4-based devices. Intrinsic and extrinsic surface states (SSs) can act as electron and hole traps that enhance the recombination rate and lower the faradaic efficiency. In this study, we investigate the BiVO4/aqueous KPi interface using two types of samples. The samples were prepared at two different deposition and annealing temperatures (450 °C and 500 °C) leading to different morphologies and stoichiometries for the two samples. Both samples exhibit SSs in the dark that are passivated under illumination. In situ ambient pressure hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed under front illumination conditions reveal the formation of a bismuth phosphate (BiPO4) surface layer for the sample annealed at 450 °C, whereas the sample annealed at 500 °C exhibits band flattening without the formation of BiPO4. These results imply that the light-induced formation of BiPO4 may not be responsible for SS passivation. Our study also suggests that slight differences in the synthesis parameters lead to significant changes in the surface stoichiometry and morphology, with drastic effects on the physical-chemical properties of the BiVO4/electrolyte interface. These differences may have important consequences for device characteristics such as long-term stability.

    M. Favaro, I.Y. Ahmet, P. C. J. Clark, F. F. Abdi, M. J. Sear, R. van de Krol, and D. E. Starr
    Marco Favaro et al 2021 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54 164001
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