New demonstrations show the potential of near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
A series of studies characterize the wide array of materials that NAP-XPS can analyze that were previously unable to be studied by traditional high-vacuum methods.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is the most widely used method for chemically analyzing surfaces. XPS quantitatively provides the elemental compositions, and oxidation states, of the upper 5 to 10 nanometers of surfaces. However, traditional XPS is a high-vacuum technique so sample loading and preparation can be time consuming, and severe limitations are placed on the types of samples that can be analyzed.