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Deposition Systems

System modules for Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE), Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) are available as stand-alone work benches or system modules for the FlexMod series and as Customized Systems for Multimethod Systems or Integrated Systems with Distribution Chambers. Other deposition techniques can be integrated from many third party suppliers on request.

Deposition System



  1. (2021) <p>Epitaxial thin-film Pd<sub>1−x</sub>Fe<sub>x</sub> alloy: a tunable ferromagnet for superconducting spintronics</p>

    Thin epitaxial films of the palladium-rich Pd1−xFex alloy were synthesized and extensively studied as a tunable ferromagnetic material for superconducting spintronics. The (001)-oriented MgO single-crystal substrate and the composition range of x = 0.01–0.07 were chosen to support the epitaxial growth and provide the films with magnetic properties spanning from very soft ferromagnet for memory applications to intermediately soft and moderately hard for the programmable logic and circuit biasing, respectively. Dependences of the saturation magnetization, Curie temperature and three magnetic anisotropy constants on the iron content x were obtained for the first time from the analyses of the magnetometry and ferromagnetic resonance data. The experimental results were discussed based on existing theories of dilute ferromagnetic alloys. Simulation of the hysteresis loops within the Stoner-Wohlfarth model indicates the predominant coherent magnetic moment rotation at cryogenic temperatures. The obtained results were compiled in a database of magnetic properties of a palladium-iron alloy in a single-crystal thin-film form considered as a material for superconducting spintronics.

    A. Esmaeili, I. V. Yanilkin, A. I. Gumarov, I. R. Vakhitov, B. F. Gabbasov, R. V. Yusupov,
    D. A. Tatarsky, and L. R. Tagirov
    Science China Materials volume 64, pages 1246–1255 (2021)
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  2. (2019) <p>Epitaxial growth of Pd<sub>1−x </sub>Fe<sub>x</sub> films on MgO single-crystal substrate</p>

    In the paper we report on growth conditions, morphology, crystallographic structure and magnetic anisotropy of 20 nm thick, palladium-rich Pd1−xFex (0.01 < x < 0.1) alloy films grown on (001)-oriented MgO single-crystal substrate. Molecular beam deposition at ultra-high vacuum conditions has been utilized along with the three-step procedure to achieve the epitaxy conditions for the synthesized films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have shown flat and smooth morphology of the films studied in a wide range of lateral scales. In situ low energy electron diffraction and ex situ X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that our Pd1−xFex alloy films are epitaxial. Ferromagnetic resonance investigations have shown the in-plane four-fold magnetocrystalline anisotropy characteristic for single-crystalline films with the cubic structure. The whole set of our measurements testifies the epitaxial cube-on-cube growth and excellent magnetic homogeneity of Pd1−xFex films on MgO substrate obtained within the three-step deposition process.

    A. Esmaeilia, I.V. Yanilkina, A.I. Gumarova, I.R. Vakhitova, B.F. Gabbasova, A.G. Kiiamova,
    A.M. Rogova, Yu.N. Osina, A.E. Denisova, R.V. Yusupova, and L.R. Tagirova
    Thin Solid Films 669 (2019) 338–344
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  3. (2021) <p>Synthesis, Characterization, and Magnetoresistive Properties of the Epitaxial Pd<sub>0.96</sub>Fe<sub>0.04 </sub>/VN/Pd <sub>0.92 </sub>Fe <sub>0.08</sub> Superconducting Spin-Valve Heterostructure</p>

    A thin-film superconductor(S)/ferromagnet(F) F1/S/F2-type Pd0.96Fe0.04 (20 nm)/VN(30 nm)/Pd0.92Fe0.08 (12 nm) heteroepitaxial structure was synthesized on (001)-oriented single-crystal MgO substrate utilizing a combination of the reactive magnetron sputtering and the molecular-beam epitaxy techniques in ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The reference VN film, Pd0.96Fe0.04 /VN, and VN/Pd0.92 Fe0.08 bilayers were grown in one run with the target sample. In-situ low-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ X-ray diffraction investigations approved that all the Pd1−xFex and VN layers in the series grew epitaxial in a cube-on-cube mode. Electric resistance measurements demonstrated sharp transitions to the superconducting state with the critical temperature reducing gradually from 7.7 to 5.4 K in the sequence of the VN film, Pd0.96 Fe0.04 /VN, VN/Pd0.92Fe0.08 , and Pd0.96Fe0.04 /VN/Pd0.92Fe0.08 heterostructures due to the superconductor/ferromagnet proximity effect. Transition width increased in the same sequence from 21 to 40 mK. Magnetoresistance studies of the trilayer Pd0.96Fe0.04 /VN/Pd0.92 Fe0.08 sample revealed a superconducting spin-valve effect upon switching between the parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations, and anomalies associated with the magnetic moment reversals of the ferromagnetic Pd0.92Fe0.08 and Pd0.96Fe0.04 alloy layers. The moderate critical temperature suppression and manifestations of superconducting spin-valve properties make this kind of material promising for superconducting spintronics applications.

    I. Yanilkin, W. Mohammed, A. Gumarov, A. Kiiamov, R. Yusupov, and L. Tagirov
    Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 64
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