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ProvenX-NAP

ProvenX NAP system for state-of-the-art XPS and UPS analysis under near ambient pressure (NAP) conditions

The ProvenX system series is the quintessence of our long experience in building high performance analysis systems for surface analysis. This system concept combines the most required analysis techniques with the latest and proven technology for ultimate performance.

The SPECS ProvenX NAP with backfilling configuration is a performance optimized system for state of the art NAP-XPS as well as NAP-UPS measurements from UHV up to 30 mbar pressure range. It contains a PHOIBOS 150 NAP analyzer with unsurpassed transmission and angular acceptance, a high performance small spot monochromatic X-ray source µ-FOCUS 600 NAP, a 4-axes manipulator with NAP different heating capabilities as well as an optional non-monochromatic UV source UVS 300 NAP.

The system comes with UHV sample storage facility and a multi sample fast entry loadlock. System control is performed by the SpecsLab Prodigy software suite with integrated remote control packages and a computer based vacuum control system.

The system can be equipped with additional sources for material characterization as well as a high pressure celll HPC 20 for sample preparation. Additional system extensions like continuous flow EC-cell or a preparation module can be added to the system.

KEY FEATURES

  • PHOIBOS 150 NAP energy analyzer with up to +/-22° acceptance angle
  • High-performance small spot monochromatic X-ray source with Al Kα anode, spot size < 250 µm
  • FlexMan NAP 4-axes manipulator with options for laser heating, radiative heating and Peltier cooling
  • Analysis module with base pressure better than 9 x 10-10 mbar
  • Optional dual anode non-monochromatic source XR 50 NAP
  • Optional non-monochromatic UV source UVS 300 NAP for NAP-UPS measurements
  • SpecsLab Prodigy Software Suite
  • Vacuum Control Software for System Operation

MADE FOR THESE METHODS

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RELATED PRODUCTS

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PUBLICATIONS

  1. (2019) <p>New Insight into the Gas-Sensing Properties of CuOx Nanowires by Near-Ambient Pressure XPS</p>

    This article presents an investigation of the sensing properties of chemiresistors based on Cu2O/CuO core–shell nanowires containing p–p′ heterojunctions. The nanowires were synthesized by a conventional hydrothermal method and used for the detection of ethanol and nitrogen dioxide, reducing and oxidizing agents, respectively. To unravel the chemical processes connected with gas detection, an in situ approach was applied. This approach was based on near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with simultaneous monitoring of sensor responses. The in situ measurements were performed during exposure to the analytes at a total pressure of 0.05–1.05 mbar and 450 K and were correlated with chemiresistor response measurements carried out at a standard pressure and under an ambient atmosphere. The study revealed that heterojunction treatment with ethanol vapors, accompanied by partial reduction of the nanowires, is the key step to obtaining chemiresistors with good sensing performance. While the untreated heterojunctions exhibited poor n-type sensing responses, the treated ones showed significantly improved p-type responses. The treated sensors were characterized by a stable baseline, high reversibility, detection limits estimated as 50 ppm for ethanol and 100 ppb for nitrogen dioxide, and with response times in tens of seconds. In all cases, we propose a band scheme of Cu2O/CuO heterojunctions and a gas-sensing mechanism.
     



    P. Hozák, M. Vorokhta, I. Khalakhan, K. Jarkovská, K. Jarkovská
    J. Cibulková, P. Fitl, J. Vlček, J. Fara, D. Tomeček, M. Novotný, M. Vorokhta, J. Lančok, I. Matolínová, and M. Vrňata
    J. Phys. Chem. C 2019, 123, 49, 29739–29749
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  2. (2018) <p>Electrifying model catalysts for understanding electrocatalytic reactions in liquid electrolytes</p>

    Electrocatalysis is at the heart of our future transition to a renewable energy system. Most energy storage and conversion technologies for renewables rely on electrocatalytic processes and, with increasing availability of cheap electrical energy from renewables, chemical production will witness electrification in the near future1,2,3. However, our fundamental understanding of electrocatalysis lags behind the field of classical heterogeneous catalysis that has been the dominating chemical technology for a long time. Here, we describe a new strategy to advance fundamental studies on electrocatalytic materials. We propose to ‘electrify’ complex oxide-based model catalysts made by surface science methods to explore electrocatalytic reactions in liquid electrolytes. We demonstrate the feasibility of this concept by transferring an atomically defined platinum/cobalt oxide model catalyst into the electrochemical environment while preserving its atomic surface structure. Using this approach, we explore particle size effects and identify hitherto unknown metal–support interactions that stabilize oxidized platinum at the nanoparticle interface. The metal–support interactions open a new synergistic reaction pathway that involves both metallic and oxidized platinum. Our results illustrate the potential of the concept, which makes available a systematic approach to build atomically defined model electrodes for fundamental electrocatalytic studies.



    F. Faisal, C.Stumm, M. Bertram, F. Waidhas, Y. Lykhach, S.Cherevko, F. Xiang, M. Ammon,
    M. Vorokhta, B. Šmíd, T. Skála, N. Tsud, A. Neitzel, K. Beranová, K. C. Prince, S. Geiger,
    O. Kasian, T. Wähler, R. Schuster, M. A. Schneider, V. Matolín, K. J. J.
    Nature Materials volume 17, pages 592–598 (2018)
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  3. (2018) <p>Investigation of gas sensing mechanism of SnO2 based chemiresistor using near ambient pressure XPS</p>

    In this article, we present the results of an investigation into chemical processes which take place at the surface of SnO2-based chemiresistor in various atmospheres (1 mbar of argon, 1 mbar of oxygen, 0.1 mbar of ethanol, 1 mbar of oxygen + 0.1 mbar of ethanol mixture) at common working temperatures (450 and 573 K). The key method for nanoscale analysis was the Near Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. In parallel the resistance and DC-responses of SnO2 layer were in-situ monitored providing information about macroscale processes during gas sensing. The change in the sensor resistance after exposure to the ethanol-containing atmospheres together with the disappearance of the band bending effect and observation of different carbonaceous groups including ethoxy groups and acetaldehyde molecules on the sensor surface in the XPS spectra supported the theory of chemical interaction of ethanol with the chemisorbed oxygen. The NAP-XPS spectra also showed that the nanostructured tin oxide is partially reduced even after being exposed to pure oxygen at 573 K. Exposing this surface to the mixture of O2/EtOH did not significantly increase the surface reduction probably due to slow kinetics of the ethanol reduction process and fast kinetics of the oxygen re-oxidation process. However, it was demonstrated that the surface of sensor is slowly getting contaminated by carbon.



    M. Vorokhta, I. Khalakhan, M. Vondráček, D. Tomeček, M. Vorokhta, E. Marešová, J. Nováková, J. Vlček, P. Fitl, M. Novotný, P. Hozák, J. Lančok, M. Vrňata, I. Matolínová, and V. Matolín
    Surface Science, Volume 677, November 2018, Pages 284-290
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