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State of the art hemispherical energy analyzer with 1D-DLD HV detector for photoelectron spectroscopy measurements (XPS and UPS) in the pressure regime from UHV to near ambient pressure (NAP). With this analyzer NAP-HAXPES measurements up to 7 keV can be performed.

The PHOIBOS 150 NAP Analyzer is a true 180° hemispherical energy analyzer with 150 mm mean radius. It consists of a differentially pumped electrostatic pre-lens, with a three-stage differentially pumped PHOIBOS 150 analyzer. Thus, the design concept provides four separate pressure stages separated by apertures. The first pumping stage (pre-lens) is separated from the analytic chamber by a nozzle with a customizable opening at the tip with diameters between 0.3 mm and 1 mm. By using a turbopump on the pre-lens stage, a pressure difference of four orders of magnitude (compared to the analysis chamber) can be achieved.The first and second stages are separated by an aperture. An in-lens gate valve allows a high-vacuum seal between of the PHOIBOS 150 Analyzer and NAP pre-lens and enables venting of the analysis chamber and pre-lens without venting the energy analyzer.

For Imaging NAP-XPS the pre-lens can be equipped with the SPECS NAP-XPS Imaging Lens Module that supports two different operation modes, one optimized for lateral resolution and one for transmission. In the lateral resolving mode the acceptance angle can be freely adjusted between +/- 3° to +/- 8° giving an ultimate lateral resolution of better than 10 µm with an acceptance area of 0.6 mm in diameter and better than 20 µm for HAXPES regime.


  • Wide Angle Pre-Lens with 44° Acceptance Angle
  • Near Ambient Working Pressures up to 100 mbar (depending on configuration)
  • Large pass energy range
  • Working range up to 7 kV
  • High energy and angular resolution
  • High spatial resolution with imaging lens module
  • Ultimate flexibility by switching between high transmission and high lateral resolution mode
  • Fast detectors with high dynamic range for fast real time data acquisition in snapshot mode
  • Pneumatic in-lens gate valve
  • 4 differential pumping stages
  • Full detector flexibility (1D-DLD, 2D-DLD, 2D-CCD/-CMOS)

R&D100 in 2010
The PHOIBOS 150 NAP Analyzer won the R&D 100 award for the best 100 products developed in 2010.




Energy Dispersion



8 Entrance, 3 Exit slits and Iris aperture

Magnetic Shielding

Double µ-Metal Shielding

Lens Modes

Angular Resolving and Transmission Lens Modes

Kinetic Energy Range

0 - 7000 eV

Pass Energies

0 - 550 eV continously adjustable


1D-DLD Detector

Measurement Modes

Snapshot mode, Sweeping mode, Fixed energy mode

Energy Window

13% of Pass Energy

Electric Isolation

up to 7 keV


HSA 7000 plus

Working Pressure

up to 30 mbar (higher pressure values achievable with corresponding nozzle diameters and differential pumping packages)

Mounting Flange

DN150 CF (8" OD)

Working Distance

300 - 500 µm (for standard nozzle with 300 µm diameter)

Acceptance Angle


Angular Resolution

only with 2D detector

Energy Resolution

< 30 meV

Lateral Resolution

only with 2D detector

Smallest Acceptance Spot

Without imaging lens module the smallest acceptance spot is defined by the excitation spot of X-ray source or nozzle diameter

Detector Channels

Max. 960 energy channels (240 and 120 channels for binning 4 and 8, respectively)

XPS Count Rates UHV

70 kcps (guaranteed), 150 kcps (achievable) *

XPS Count Rates 10 mbar

7 kcps (guaranteed), 15 kcps (achievable) *

XPS Count Rates 25 mbar

0.5 kcps (guaranteed), 1.5 kcps (achievable) *


* Ag 3d, FWHM < 0.85 eV, small spot monochromated X-ray source µ-FOCUS 600, Al Kα anode, 20 W, Spot size < 250 µm




  1. (2021) <p>A comparative study of electrochemical cells for in situ x-ray spectroscopies in the soft and tender x-ray range</p>

    n situ x-ray spectroscopies offer a powerful way to understand the electronic structure of the electrode–electrolyte interface under operating conditions. However, most x-ray techniques require vacuum, making it necessary to design spectro-electrochemical cells with a delicate interface to the wet electrochemical environment. The design of the cell often dictates what measurements can be done and which electrochemical processes can be studied. Hence, it is important to pick the right spectro-electrochemical cell for the process of interest. To facilitate this choice, and to highlight the challenges in cell design, we critically review four recent, successful cell designs. Using several case studies, we investigate the opportunities and limitations that arise in practical experiments.

    J.-J. Velasco-Vélez, L. J. Falling, D. Bernsmeier, M. J Sear, P. C. J. Clark, T.-S. Chan, E. Stotz, M. Hävecker, R. Kraehnert, and A. Knop-Gericke
    Juan-Jesús Velasco-Vélez et al 2021 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54 124003
    Read more
  2. (2021) <p>In situ investigation of the bismuth vanadate/potassium phosphate interface reveals morphological and composition dependent light-induced surface reactions</p>

    Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is an established n-type oxide semiconductor for photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution. Direct charge carrier recombination at the solid/liquid interface is a major cause of efficiency loss in BiVO4-based devices. Intrinsic and extrinsic surface states (SSs) can act as electron and hole traps that enhance the recombination rate and lower the faradaic efficiency. In this study, we investigate the BiVO4/aqueous KPi interface using two types of samples. The samples were prepared at two different deposition and annealing temperatures (450 °C and 500 °C) leading to different morphologies and stoichiometries for the two samples. Both samples exhibit SSs in the dark that are passivated under illumination. In situ ambient pressure hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments performed under front illumination conditions reveal the formation of a bismuth phosphate (BiPO4) surface layer for the sample annealed at 450 °C, whereas the sample annealed at 500 °C exhibits band flattening without the formation of BiPO4. These results imply that the light-induced formation of BiPO4 may not be responsible for SS passivation. Our study also suggests that slight differences in the synthesis parameters lead to significant changes in the surface stoichiometry and morphology, with drastic effects on the physical-chemical properties of the BiVO4/electrolyte interface. These differences may have important consequences for device characteristics such as long-term stability.

    M. Favaro, I.Y. Ahmet, P. C. J. Clark, F. F. Abdi, M. J. Sear, R. van de Krol, and D. E. Starr
    Marco Favaro et al 2021 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 54 164001
    Read more


Product image
Product description
Article No.
DN40CF 4-fold SMB Feedthrough for DLD

Spare electrical feedthrough for all DLD detectors. Connection flange for the ACU unit

Cu gasket for PHOIBOS 150

PHOIBOS 150 analyzer main flange gasket for Releases R5, R6, R7

Nozzle 0,3 mm, double coated

Nozzle 0,3 mm for 7 kV PHOIBOS 150 Backfilling Pre-Lens

Nozzle 1,0 mm, double coated

Nozzle 1,0 mm for 7 kV PHOIBOS 150 Backfilling Pre-Lens

Rotary feedthrough for IRIS

Replacement feedthrough for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

Spindle with Spur and Bevel Gear for Iris

Replacement spindle for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

Tubus 3 with Iris

Replacement iris mechanism for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6



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