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TSO add-on

Complex nanodevices require a large number of gate voltages, and this number is usually much larger than the number of signals to be digitized. While the 8 input channels of the Nanonis Tramea™ base configuration offer sufficient digitizing channels for most applications, 8 output channels might not cover all the requirements for sample driving voltages. One TSO instantaneously adds 16 high precision and low-noise 20-bit outputs to the Nanonis Tramea™ base configuration. For even more complex experiments, a maximum of 2 TSOs can be connected to the Nanonis Tramea™ base configuration, transforming the instrument into a 50 outputs and 8 inputs system. Never before has that number of signals been generated or acquired with similar performance.

Nanonis TSO
Nanonis Tramea TSO add-on module

The TSO analog outputs have identical specifications to the analog outputs of the TSC (with the exception of the 22-bit hrdAC™ mode) meaning no compromise on signal quality. And while increasing the number of channels with conventional systems means adapting the measurement software and potentially changing the workflow, with Nanonis Tramea™ none of this is necessary. The additional TSO signals are seamlessly integrated into the Nanonis Tramea™ software allowing immediate productivity. All TSO channels can be accessed by the lock-in and function generator modules.

TSO add-ons can be combined with TSC add-ons, leading to maxed-out configurations with 40 outputs and 24 inputs or 48 outputs and 16 inputs.


  • 16 additional high precision and low noise 20-bit analog outputs
  • Ultra-low drift and drift between channels owing to a central temperature-stabilized voltage reference
  • Up to a total of 40 output channels with 2 TSO add-ons and 48 output channels with 2 TSO and 1 TSC add-on
  • Seamless integration of additional channels in the software
  • Lock-in modules and function generator can drive any of the 16 outputs to add a modulation or custom waveforms with frequencies up to 40 kHz

TSC and TSO add-on combinations supported by the base configuration

ConfigurationTotal number of outputsTotal number of inputs
Base configuration88
+1 TSC1616
+1 TSO248
+2 TSC2424
+1 TSC, +1 TSO3216
+2 TSO408
+2 TSC, +1TSO4024
+1 TSC, +2 TSO4816




TSO add-on
Analog outputs

all specifications for ±10 V output range

Number of Connectors

16x BNC connectors, referenced to AGND

Output voltage range

±10 V into 1 kΩ or larger
(0 to +10 V with internal jumper per channel)

Output impedance

<1 Ω, short circuit safe

Analog bandwidth

DC – 40 kHz (-3 dB),
5th – order Butterworth low-pass filter


20-bit, 1-ppm precision, 1 MS/s

Effective resolution

22-bit, patented hrDACTM technology with active glitch compensation


< ±2 LSB max. < ±1 LSB typical


< ±1 LSB max. < 0.5 LSB typical

Output noise density

< 25 nV/√Hz @ 100 Hz, < 75 nV/√Hz @ 1 Hz

Output noise 0.1 Hz - 10 Hz

< 200 nVrms (0.1 – 10 Hz)

Output noise 10 Hz - 300 kHz

< 10 μVrms (10 Hz – 300 kHz)

12 h drift

< 1.5 μV (< 25 μV) @ 0 V (@ 9.9 V)


> 93 dB @ 100 Hz, > 93 dB @ 1 kHz, > 79 dB @ 10 kHz (9V output signal)

Operating temperature

+5° C to +35° C

Power Supply

Built-in linearly regulated power supply, toroidal transformer, automatic line voltage detection. Max. 51 W

Power Input

100 – 240 V, 50 - 60 Hz

Electrical GND

10 kΩ AGND to chassis, decoupled from TRCe


32.5 x 28 x 7 cm


4.2 kg




  1. (2019) Gate Tunable Hole Charge Qubit Formed in a Ge/Si Nanowire Double Quantum Dot Coupled to Microwave Photons

    A controllable and coherent light-matter interface is an essential element for a scalable quantum information processor. Strong coupling to an on-chip cavity has been accomplished in various electron quantum dot systems, but rarely explored in the hole systems. Here we demonstrate a hybrid architecture comprising a microwave transmission line resonator controllably coupled to a hole charge qubit formed in a Ge/Si core/shell nanowire (NW), which is a natural one-dimensional hole gas with a strong spin–orbit interaction (SOI) and lack of nuclear spin scattering, potentially enabling fast spin manipulation by electric manners and long coherence times. The charge qubit is established in a double quantum dot defined by local electrical gates. Qubit transition energy can be independently tuned by the electrochemical potential difference and the tunnel coupling between the adjacent dots, opening transverse (σx) and longitudinal (σz) degrees of freedom for qubit operation and interaction. As the qubit energy is swept across the photon level, the coupling with resonator is thus switched on and off, as detected by resonator transmission spectroscopy. The observed resonance dynamics is replicated by a complete quantum numerical simulation considering an efficient charge dipole-photon coupling with a strength up to 2π × 55 MHz, yielding an estimation of the spin-resonator coupling rate through SOI to be about 10 MHz. The results inspire the future researches on the coherent hole-photon interaction in Ge/Si nanowires.

    R. Wang, R. S. Deacon, J. Sun, J. Yao, C. M. Lieber and K. Ishibashi
    Nano Lett. 2019, 19, 2, 1052-1060
    Read more


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