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Tramea lock-in modules

High-performance digital lock-in amplifiers

Single lock-in module
Single lock-in module with 1 frequency generator and 2 independent dual-phase demodulators
nanonis Tramea lock-in module with multi-demodulator option
Single lock-in module with 1 frequency generator and 8 independent dual-phase demodulators
Quad lock-in module
Quad lock-in module with 4 independent frequency generators and 8 independent dual-phase demodulators
Quad lock-in module, list mode view
Quad lock-in module with 4 independent frequency generators and 8 independent dual-phase demodulators in list-mode view showing all parameters at once
Octa lock-in module
Octa lock-in module with 8 independent frequency generators and 8 independent dual-phase demodulators
Octa lock-in module, list mode view
Octa lock-in module with 8 independent frequency generators and 8 independent dual-phase demodulators in list-mode view showing all parameters at once
Filter configuration tool
The filter configuration tool makes it easy to determine suitable time constants and filter slopes based on the required integration time. It also displays frequency and step response
Transfer Function measurement
Transfer functions of the signal chain can easily be measured with the transfer function tool
Lock-in filters for generic signals
When not used for lock-in measurements, the high-performance low-pass and high-pass filters of the lock-in demodulators can be used for generic signals
Lock-in sync output
To synchronize external instruments, analog outputs can be used to output a sync signal at the same frequency as that of the lock-in signal generators

The lock-in modules let you modulate and demodulate any of the input and output signals available with frequencies up to 40 kHz. Up to 8 lock-in modules can be used independently from each other or synchronized in a phase coherent manner when the generation of multiple frequencies is required. With the multi-frequency option a single module can demodulate up to 8 harmonics of the same signal or independent input signals. The advantage of an internal lock-in detector over an external device is 

  • Higher resolution and dynamic range
  • Multifrequency and multi-input operation
  • Over 120 dB linearity
  • Over 100 dB dynamic reserve
  • No need for gain and attenuation switching
  • Steeper filters (up to 8. order) 
  • Up to 8 lock-ins, which can also be synchronized for phase-coherent operation
  • Lock-in can be synchronized with OC4. Measure STM current at the exact oscillation frequency of the probe
  • Synchronization with data acquisition when using Sync filtering
  • Integration avoids errors due to insufficient settling time with slow filter responses 
  • no additional noise source through external cabling
  • no potential grounding problems
  • Tandem-demodulation is straightforward to configure
  • flexible and simple setup
  • Guided filter set-up utility
  • Ability to turn on and off the excitation through software during the experiment
  • Ability to turn on and off the excitation for different bias ranges through software during the experiment

Applications range from regular transport measurements to multi-terminal Hall measurements, multifrequency measurements, simultaneous data acquisition with different time constants, dI/dV, inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS), measurements of open and closed loop transfer functions and every type of phase sensitive measurements.

The lock-in filter array is also available for signals unrelated to lock-in measurements. The filters in the array are freely assignable, meaning that it is possible to use a subset of the filters for lock-in measurements and the remaining filters for generic purposes.

All lock-in modules also feature a sync output option. In addition to the main signal output, the lock-in module can generate a synchronization signal with the same frequency as the main signal. The amplitude can be configured independently from that of the main signal, and it is also possible to use harmonics of the main signal frequency as a sync signal. The sync signal is used to synchronize external instruments (for example other lock-ins, optical choppers,…) with the frequency of the internal lock-in. The output connector for the sync signal is user-selectable.


  • Modulates any signal up to 40kHz
  • Demodulates any signal up to 100 kHz (R, phi and X, Y)
  • Up to 8 independent modules, synchronizable
  • Lock-in Modules can be synchronized to OC4 for acquiring signals at the oscillation frequency
  • Advanced signal filtering
  • Record transfer functions (bode plots)
  • Tandem-demodulation possible

Lock-in packages

TypeDesignationPart numberNumber of frequency generatorsNumber of dual-phase demodulators
Single lock-inLD5-121000022301


Dual lock-inLD5-2210000546724
Quad lock-inLD5-4210000585248
Octa lock-inLD5-8210000585388
Multi-demodulator option for LD5-1 and LD5-2LD5-MF2100005854Same as LD5-1 or LD5-28

Lock-in upgrade packages

TypeDesignationPart numberNumber of frequency generatorsNumber of dual-phase demodulators

Upgrade from LD5-1 to LD5-2

LD5UG1-221000058551 → 2

2 → 4

Upgrade from LD5-1 to LD5-4

LD5UG1-421000058561 → 42 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-1 to LD5-8

LD5UG1-821000058571 → 82 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-2 to LD5-4

LD5UG2-421000058582 → 44 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-2 to LD5-8

LD5UG2-821000058592 → 84 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-4 to LD5-8

LD5UG4-821000058604 → 88 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-1 with LD5-MF option to LD5-2MF

LD5UG1MF-2MF21000058611 → 28 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-1 with LD5-MF option to LD5-4 (includes LD5-MF option)

LD5UG1MF-421000058621 → 48 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-1 with LD5-MF option to LD5-8 (includes LD5-MF option)

LD5UG1MF-821000058631 → 88 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-2 with LD5-MF option to LD5-4 (includes LD5-MF option)

LD5UG2MF-421000058642 → 48 → 8
Upgrade from LD5-2 with LD5-MF option to LD5-4 (includes LD5-MF option)LD5UG2MF-821000058652 → 88 → 8




Tramea lock-in modules
Number of Frequency generators

1, 2, 4 or 8

Number of Demodulators

1, 2, 4 or 8 dual-phase demodulators assignable to any carrier

Modulation Frequency Range

100 mHz - 40 kHz

Demodulation Frequency Range

100 mHz - 100 kHz

Frequency Resolution

10 nHz

Phase Resolution

22 fRad

Demodulator Harmonic

1 - 32

Demodulator Filter Cut-Off Frequency

100 mHz - 20 kHz (corresponds to time constants between 18 s and 8 μs)

Demodulator Filter Slope

6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48 dB/oct

Demodulator Output Resolution


Demodulator Output Data Rate

1 MS/s

Sync Filter Frequency Range

100 mHz - 40 kHz


120 dB

Dynamic Reserve

>100 dB


Any internal frequency generator or OC4

Demodulator Settings

Independent for each demodulator




Topological Insulator Josephson junctions
Topological Insulator Josephson junctions
In a topological insulator (TI), the electronic structure of the bulk reveals a unique topology that leads to the formation of conducting surface states with intriguing properties. The topological protection of the surface states and the possible emergence of Majorana fermions in superconductor/TI hybrid devices make these materials a leading candidate for use as a robust platform for future fault-tolerant quantum computation. The main challenge in creating these structures lies in the fabrication of an electrically transparent interface between the conventional superconductor and the topological insulator. A Josephson junction, formed by two closely spaced superconducting electrodes separated by a gap of less than 100 nm, can be used as a measure of the quality of the electrical interface. At low temperatures the superconducting electrodes induce superconductivity in the topological insulator by the proximity effect, with a finite Josephson current observed across a sufficiently narrow gap.
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Transport and RF-Reflectometry Measurements of CMOS Nanodevices
Transport and RF-Reflectometry Measurements of CMOS Nanodevices
Pioneering work on semiconductor quantum dots has shown that quantum dots are promising candidates as a building block (qubit) for quantum information and computation. Quantum dots are quasi-zero-dimensional nanostructures which can confine single electrons, whose spin or charge degree of freedom can then be used to represent quantum bits (qubits). Quantum computing approaches based on semiconductors can build upon mature micro/nano-fabrication technologies, which will be invaluable in scaling up to a large number of reproducible qubits with practical yields and integrated electronics. As part of the classical information technology industry, CMOS transistors have reached sufficiently small feature sizes that quantum effects can begin to play a dominant role. This motivates the exploration of quantum effects in such transistors fabricated using CMOS processes.
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  1. (2021) Quantum confinement of the Dirac surface states in topological-insulator nanowires

    The non-trivial topology of three-dimensional topological insulators dictates the appearance of gapless Dirac surface states. Intriguingly, when made into a nanowire, quantum confinement leads to a peculiar gapped Dirac sub-band structure. This gap is useful for, e.g., future Majorana qubits based on TIs. Furthermore, these sub-bands can be manipulated by a magnetic flux and are an ideal platform for generating stable Majorana zero modes, playing a key role in topological quantum computing. However, direct evidence for the Dirac sub-bands in TI nanowires has not been reported so far. Here, using devices fabricated from thin bulk-insulating (Bi1−xSbx)2Te3 nanowires we show that non-equidistant resistance peaks, observed upon gate-tuning the chemical potential across the Dirac point, are the unique signatures of the quantized sub-bands. These TI nanowires open the way to address the topological mesoscopic physics, and eventually the Majorana physics when proximitized by an s-wave superconductor.

    F. Münning, O. Breunig, H. F. Legg, S. Roitsch, D. Fan, M. Rößler, A. Rosch, and Y. Ando
    Nat Commun 12, 1038 (2021)
    Read more
  2. (2019) Gate Tunable Hole Charge Qubit Formed in a Ge/Si Nanowire Double Quantum Dot Coupled to Microwave Photons

    A controllable and coherent light-matter interface is an essential element for a scalable quantum information processor. Strong coupling to an on-chip cavity has been accomplished in various electron quantum dot systems, but rarely explored in the hole systems. Here we demonstrate a hybrid architecture comprising a microwave transmission line resonator controllably coupled to a hole charge qubit formed in a Ge/Si core/shell nanowire (NW), which is a natural one-dimensional hole gas with a strong spin–orbit interaction (SOI) and lack of nuclear spin scattering, potentially enabling fast spin manipulation by electric manners and long coherence times. The charge qubit is established in a double quantum dot defined by local electrical gates. Qubit transition energy can be independently tuned by the electrochemical potential difference and the tunnel coupling between the adjacent dots, opening transverse (σx) and longitudinal (σz) degrees of freedom for qubit operation and interaction. As the qubit energy is swept across the photon level, the coupling with resonator is thus switched on and off, as detected by resonator transmission spectroscopy. The observed resonance dynamics is replicated by a complete quantum numerical simulation considering an efficient charge dipole-photon coupling with a strength up to 2π × 55 MHz, yielding an estimation of the spin-resonator coupling rate through SOI to be about 10 MHz. The results inspire the future researches on the coherent hole-photon interaction in Ge/Si nanowires.

    R. Wang, R. S. Deacon, J. Sun, J. Yao, C. M. Lieber and K. Ishibashi
    Nano Lett. 2019, 19, 2, 1052-1060
    Read more


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