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Lock-in modules

High-performance digital lock-in amplifiers

Single lock-in module
Single lock-in module with 1 frequency generator and 2 independent dual-phase demodulators
Quad lock-in module
Quad lock-in module with 4 independent frequency generators and 8 independent dual-phase demodulators
Filter configuration tool
The filter configuration tool makes it easy to determine suitable time constants and filter slopes based on the required integration time. It also displays frequency and step response
Transfer Function measurement
Transfer functions of the signal chain can easily be measured with the transfer function tool
Lock-in filters for generic signals
When not used for lock-in measurements, the high-performance low-pass and high-pass filters of the lock-in demodulators can be used for generic signals
Lock-in sync output
To synchronize external instruments, analog outputs can be used to output a sync signal at the same frequency as that of the lock-in signal generators

The lock-in modules let you modulate and demodulate any of the input and output signals available in the Nanonis SPM controller with frequencies up to 40 kHz. Up to 8 lock-in modules can be used independently from each other or synchronized in a phase coherent manner when the generation of multiple frequencies is required. With the multi-frequency option a single module can demodulate up to 8 harmonics of the same signal or independent input signals. The advantage of an internal lock-in detector over an external device is 

  • Higher resolution and dynamic range
  • Multifrequency and multi-input operation
  • Over 120 dB linearity
  • Over 100 dB dynamic reserve
  • No need for gain and attenuation switching
  • Steeper filters (up to 8. order) 
  • Up to 8 lock-ins, which can also be synchronized for phase-coherent operation
  • Lock-in can be synchronized with OC4. Measure STM current at the exact oscillation frequency of the probe
  • Synchronization with data acquisition when using Sync filtering
  • Integration avoids errors due to insufficient settling time with slow filter responses 
  • no additional noise source through external cabling
  • no potential grounding problems
  • Tandem-demodulation is straightforward to configure
  • flexible and simple setup
  • Guided filter set-up utility
  • Ability to turn on and off the excitation through software during the experiment
  • Ability to turn on and off the excitation for different bias ranges through software during the experiment

Applications range from regular dI/dV, CITS, inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS), transport experiments, Hall measurements, multi-frequency and multi-demodulator measurements of open and closed loop transfer functions and every type of phase sensitive measurements.

The lock-in filter array is also available for signals unrelated to lock-in measurements. The filters in the array are freely assignable, meaning that it is possible to use a subset of the filters for lock-in measurements and the remaining filters for generic purposes.

All lock-in modules also feature a sync output option. In addition to the main signal output, the lock-in module can generate a synchronization signal with the same frequency as the main signal. The amplitude can be configured independently from that of the main signal, and it is also possible to use harmonics of the main signal frequency as a sync signal. The sync signal is used to synchronize external instruments (for example other lock-ins, optical choppers,…) with the frequency of the internal lock-in. The output connector for the sync signal is user-selectable.


  • Modulates any signal up to 40kHz
  • Demodulates any signal up to 100 kHz (R, phi and X, Y)
  • Up to 8 independent modules, synchronizable
  • Lock-in Modules can be synchronized to OC4 for acquiring signals at the oscillation frequency
  • Advanced signal filtering
  • Record transfer functions (bode plots)
  • Sync output for each frequency generator
  • Tandem-demodulation possible
  • Lock-in filters can be used as HP/LP-filters for generic signals

Lock-in packages

TypeDesignationPart numberNumber of frequency generatorsNumber of dual-phase demodulators
Single lock-inLD5-121000022301


Dual lock-inLD5-2210000546724
Quad lock-inLD5-4210000585248
Octa lock-inLD5-8210000585388
Multi-demodulator option for LD5-1 and LD5-2LD5-MF2100005854Same as LD5-1 or LD5-28

Lock-in upgrade packages

TypeDesignationPart numberNumber of frequency generatorsNumber of dual-phase demodulators

Upgrade from LD5-1 to LD5-2

LD5UG1-221000058551 → 2

2 → 4

Upgrade from LD5-1 to LD5-4

LD5UG1-421000058561 → 42 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-1 to LD5-8

LD5UG1-821000058571 → 82 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-2 to LD5-4

LD5UG2-421000058582 → 44 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-2 to LD5-8

LD5UG2-821000058592 → 84 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-4 to LD5-8

LD5UG4-821000058604 → 88 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-1 with LD5-MF option to LD5-2MF

LD5UG1MF-2MF21000058611 → 28 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-1 with LD5-MF option to LD5-4 (includes LD5-MF option)

LD5UG1MF-421000058621 → 48 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-1 with LD5-MF option to LD5-8 (includes LD5-MF option)

LD5UG1MF-821000058631 → 88 → 8

Upgrade from LD5-2 with LD5-MF option to LD5-4 (includes LD5-MF option)

LD5UG2MF-421000058642 → 48 → 8
Upgrade from LD5-2 with LD5-MF option to LD5-4 (includes LD5-MF option)LD5UG2MF-821000058652 → 88 → 8




Lock-in modules
Number of Frequency generators

1, 2, 4 or 8

Number of Demodulators

1, 2, 4 or 8 dual-phase demodulators assignable to any carrier

Modulation Frequency Range

100 mHz - 40 kHz

Demodulation Frequency Range

100 mHz - 100 kHz

Frequency Resolution

10 nHz

Phase Resolution

22 fRad

Demodulator Harmonic

1 - 32

Demodulator Filter Cut-Off Frequency

100 mHz - 20 kHz (corresponds to time constants between 18 s and 8 μs)

Demodulator Filter Slope

6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48 dB/oct

Demodulator Output Resolution


Demodulator Output Data Rate

1 MS/s

Sync Filter Frequency Range

100 mHz - 40 kHz


120 dB

Dynamic Reserve

>100 dB


Any internal frequency generator or OC4

Demodulator Settings

Independent for each demodulator




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