We present a newly developed end-station at BESSY II dedicated to in situ Spectroscopic Analysis with Tender X-rays (SpAnTeX). The core of the end-station is a new SPECS PHOIBOS 150 HV NAP electron spectrometer. First, we show that the system has successfully achieved high electron transmission and detection efficiency under gas pressures up to 30 mbar and photon energies ranging between 200 eV and 10 keV. Second, using two features of this spectrometer (a new lateral resolution lens and a 3D delay line detector), we show that the endstation enables collection of the photoelectron spatial distribution under realistic working conditions (p ≥ 20 mbar) with a resolution better than 30 μm and the possibility to perform time resolved studies using a continuous tender X-ray source. We conclude by reporting an example of the possible experiments that can be performed using this new endstation using the Dip-and-Pull technique.
Although mainly focused on the characterization of solid/liquid interfaces using AP-HAXPES, the end-station can be used at soft X-ray beamlines for more traditional AP-XPS experiments. The Dip-and-Pull module also demonstrates good electrochemical performance. The wide pressure and photon energy range covered by this end-station also enables investigations of solid/solid, solid/gas, liquid/vapor and liquid/liquid interfaces at pressures up to 30 mbar with tender X-rays.
M. Favaro, P. C. J. Clark, M. J. Sear, M. Johansson, S. Maehl, R. van de Krol, and D.E. Starr
Volume 713, November 2021, 121903