Introduction to near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of various materials

Near-ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) is a less traditional form of XPS that allows samples to be analyzed at relatively high pressures, i.e., greater than 2500 Pa. With NAP-XPS, a wide variety of unconventional materials can be analyzed, including moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials, and/or polymeric materials that outgas significantly. Charge compensation with NAP-XPS takes place simply through the residual/background gas in the chamber, which is ionized by the incident x-rays. High quality spectra—high resolution and good signal-to-noise ratios—are regularly obtained. This article is an introduction to a series of papers in Surface Science Spectra on the NAP-XPS characterization of a series of materials. The purpose of these articles is to introduce and demonstrate the versatility and usefulness of the technique.