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Hemispherical Energy Analyzer with 2D DLD Detector for XPS, ARPES, ISS and LEISS with 150 mm Mean Radius.

The PHOIBOS 150 hemispherical energy analyzer is the state-of-the-art analysis solution for photoelectron spectroscopy. This analyzer can be operated in all relevant analysis modes, such as ARPES, XPS, UPS, as well as AES, ISS and LEISS. Its design and the modular supplementary hardware makes this analyzer the most versatile PES analyzer in the market.

The integrated 2D-DLD detector is an ultrafast 2D single event detection system. The direct detection of electron signals yield quantitative counts per second (cps) in the energy and angular/second dimension. The powerful electronics can aquire ultrafast snapshot measurements of the energy spectrum with up to 1000 energy (anguklar channels as well as continous sweeping energy spectra. Its low dark count rate and high linearity make this detector outstanding for XPS analyis. 

The energy analyzer sectionis equipped with 8 customizable entrance and 3 exit slits. For highest energy resolution the entrance slit can be chosen down to 50 µm, providing achievable energy resolution better than 2 meV. The analyzer comes with a highly stable power supply, the HSA 3500 plus, for best performance in a wide kinetic energy range.


  • High Performance Analyzer for XPS, ARPES, AES, ISS and LEIS
  • 150 mm Mean Radius
  • Energy resolution better than 2 meV
  • Angular Resolution better than 0.1°
  • 2D MCP Chevron Detector with Delayline Detection
  • Single Event Detection with True Count Rate up to 5 MHz
  • Double µ-Metal Shielding




Kinetic Energy Range

0-3500 eV

Pass Energies

0-550 eV Continously Adjustable

Energy Dispersion


Lens Modes

Transmission Mode, Angular Resolved Mode, Magnification (Lateral Resolved) Mode

Measurement Modes

Snapshot Mode, Sweeping Mode, Fixed Energy Mode


2D DLD Detector


8 entrance and 3 exit slits and iris aperture

Energy Window

13% of Pass Energy


HSA 3500 +

Working Pressure

10-11 to 10-7 mbar

Lateral Resolution

< 35 µm

Energy Resolution

< 2 meV

Angular Resolution

< 0.1°



Acceptance Angle

±15°, ±7°, ±4° and ±3°

Smallest Acceptance Spot

100 µm

XPS Count Rates UHV

> 0.5 Mcps @ 0.85 eV and > 1.5 Mcps @ 1.00 eV FWHM

Detector Channels

1000 x 800 (with Channel Binning)

Working Distance

40 mm

Mounting Flange

DN100CF (6" OD)

Magnetic Shielding

Double µ-Metal Shielding

Electric Isolation

> 10 keV




  1. (2019) Insights into the role of Zn and Ga in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol over Pd

    The hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol is a viable alternative for reducing greenhouse gases net emissions as well as a route for hydrogen storage and transportation. In this context, the synthesis of active and selective catalysts is a relevant objective. In this work, we study the promotion of Pd with Ga and Zn in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol at 800 kPa and 220–280 °C. Mono and intermetallic catalysts (Pd/SiO2, PdGa/SiO2 and Pd-Zn/SiO2) were synthesized by incipient wetness impregnation with the aid of triethanolamine as an organic additive, obtaining similar average metal particle sizes (between 9 and 12 nm). Kinetic analysis reveals that the addition of Ga and Zn increases the turnover frequency for methanol formation by an order of magnitude without significant changes in the reaction rate of the reverse water-gas shift (r-WGS) which is a parallel undesired reaction. The selectivity to methanol (at 220 °C) thus increases from 3% for Pd/SiO2 to 12% for Pd-Ga/SiO2 and 30% for Pd-Zn/SiO2. XPS studies, Infrared analysis of CO adsorption, and XRD analyses show the presence of intermetallic phases Pd2Ga and PdZn on the surface. The results suggest that Ga and Zn promote Pd, increasing its activity towards the synthesis of methanol, by creating more active sites for this reaction. These sites are likely formed by intermetallic compounds such as Pd2Ga and PdZn.

    R. Manrique, R. Jiménez, J. Rodríguez-Pereira, V. G. Baldovino-Medrano, and A. Karelovic
    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 44, Issue 31, 21 June 2019, Pages 16526-16536
    Read more
  2. (2017) Catalytic consequences of Ga promotion on Cu for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol

    The promotion of Ga on SiO2 supported Cu in the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol at 800 kPa and 200–280 °C was investigated. Cu/SiO2 and CuGa/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by a water-in-oil microemulsion technique resulting in Cu clusters of 4–6.5 nm. It was found that Ga addition increased the methanol formation rate by an order of magnitude without significantly changing that for reverse water gas shift (RWGS). This trend is also evidenced by the decrease in the apparent activation barrier for methanol formation from 78 (for Cu/SiO2) to 26–39 kJ mol−1 when Ga was added, but not for RWGS (107–132 kJ mol−1). Kinetic and in situ DRIFTS analyses revealed that formate intermediates are adsorbed on both Cu and Ga2O3 and that methoxy hydrogenation could be the rate determining step of methanol synthesis. In the case of RWGS, a zero order of CO formation with respect to H2 concentration was consistent with a redox mechanism and with the reaction occurring predominantly on Cu sites. The results suggest that Ga promotes Cu increasing methanol selectivity, likely by creating new active sites for methanol formation without modifying its oxidation state, which under reaction conditions remains mostly metallic.

    J. C. Medina, M. Figueroa, R. Manrique, J. R. Pereira, P. D. Srinivasan, J. J. Bravo-Suárez, V. G. Baldovino Medrano, R. Jiméneza and A. Karelovic
    Catal. Sci. Technol., 2017,7, 3375-3387
    Read more
  3. (2016) Multiphoton Photoemission Microscopy of High-Order Plasmonic Resonances at the Ag/Vacuum and Ag/Si Interfaces of Epitaxial Silver Nanowires

    Understanding the physics of surface plasmons and related phenomena requires knowledge of the spatial, temporal, and spectral distributions of the total electromagnetic field excited within nanostructures and their interfaces, which reflects the electromagnetic mode excitation, confinement, propagation, and damping. We present a microscopic and spectroscopic study of the plasmonic response in single-crystalline Ag wires grown in situ on Si(001) substrates. Excitation of the plasmonic modes with broadly tunable (UV–IR) femtosecond laser pulses excites ultrafast multiphoton photoemission, whose spatial distribution is imaged with an aberration-corrected photoemission electron microscope, thereby providing a time-integrated map of the locally enhanced electromagnetic fields. We show by tuning the wavelength, polarization, and k-vector of the incident laser light that for a few micrometers long wires we can selectively excite either the propagating surface plasmon polariton modes or high-order multipolar resonances of the Ag/vacuum and Ag/Si interfaces. Moreover, upon tuning the excitation wavelength from the UV to the near-IR spectral regions, we find that the resonant plasmonic modes shift from the top of the wires to selvedge at the Ag/Si interface. Our results, supported by numerical simulations, provide a better understanding of the optical response of metal/semiconductor structures and guidance toward the design of polaritonic and nanophotonic devices with enhanced properties, as well as suggest mechanisms for plasmonically enhanced photocatalysis.

    M. Da̧browski, Y. Dai, A. Argondizzo, Q. Zou, X. Cui, H. Petek
    ACS Photonics 3 (9), pp. 1704–1713
    Read more
  4. (2016) Time-resolved photoemission study of the electronic structure and dynamics of chemisorbed alkali atoms on Ru(0001)

    We investigate the electronic structure and photoexcitation dynamics of alkali atoms (Rb and Cs) chemisorbed on transition-metal Ru(0001) single-crystal surface by angle- and time-resolved multiphoton photoemission. Three- and four-photon photoemission (3PP and 4PP) spectroscopic features due to the σ and π resonances arising from the ns and np states of free alkali atoms are observed from ∼2 eV below the vacuum level in the zero-coverage limit. As the alkali coverage is increased to a maximum of 0.02 monolayers, the resonances are stabilized by formation of a surface dipole layer, but in contrast to alkali chemisorption on noble metals, both resonances form dispersive bands with nearly free-electron mass. Density functional theory calculations attribute the band formation to substrate-mediated interaction involving hybridization with the unoccupied d bands of the substrate. Time-resolved measurements quantify the phase and population relaxation times in the three-photon photoemission (3PP) process via the σ and π resonances. Differences between alkali-atom chemisorption on noble and transition metals are discussed.

    S. Zhang, C. Wang, X. Cui, Y. Wang, A. Argondizzo, J. Zhao, H. Petek
    Phys. Rev. B 93, 045401
    Read more
  5. (2014) Transient excitons at metal surfaces

    Excitons, electron–hole pairs bound by the Coulomb potential, are the fundamental quasiparticles of coherent light–matter interaction relevant for processes such as photosynthesis and optoelectronics. The existence of excitons in semiconductors is well established. For metals, however, although implied by the quantum theory of the optical response, experimental manifestations of excitons are tenuous owing to screening of the Coulomb interaction taking place on timescales of a few femtoseconds. Here we present direct evidence for the dominant transient excitonic response at a Ag(111) surface, which precedes the full onset of screening of the Coulomb interaction, in the course of a three-photon photoemission process with 15 fs laser pulses. During this transient regime, electron–hole pair Coulomb interactions introduce coherent quasiparticle correlations beyond the single-particle description of the optics of metals that dominate the multi-photon photoemission process on the timescale of screening at a Ag(111) surface.

    X. Cui, C. Wang, A. Argondizzo, S. Garrett-Roe, B. Gumhalter, H. Petek
    Nature Physics 10, pp. 505–509
    Read more
  6. (2009) Atomically flat SrO-terminated SrTiO3(001) substrate

    We show that atomically flat single SrO-terminated SrTiO3(001) substrates can be obtained through simple high-temperature treatment. Amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy with phase-lag analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, have been used to demonstrate that the ratio between the two chemical terminations can be tailored by choosing the annealing time. Moreover, the progressive SrO surface enrichment (up to 100%) is accompanied by a self-assembly process which results in the spatial separation at the nanoscale of both chemical terminations. We further demonstrate that this opens a interesting avenue for selective chemical reaction and growth of oxide nanostructures.

    R. Bachelet, F. Sánchez, F. J. Palomares, C. Ocal, J. Fontcuberta
    Applied Physics Letters 95, 141915
    Read more
  7. (2008) Fullerenes from aromatic precursors by surface-catalysed cyclodehydrogenation

    Graphite vaporization provides an uncontrolled yet efficient means of producing fullerene molecules. However, some fullerene derivatives or unusual fullerene species might only be accessible through rational and controlled synthesis methods. Recently, such an approach has been used to produce isolable amounts of the fullerene C60 from commercially available starting materials. But the overall process required 11 steps to generate a suitable polycyclic aromatic precursor molecule, which was then dehydrogenated in the gas phase with a yield of only about one per cent. Here we report the formation of C60 and the triazafullerene C57N3 from aromatic precursors using a highly efficient surface-catalysed cyclodehydrogenation process. We find that after deposition onto a platinum (111) surface and heating to 750 K, the precursors are transformed into the corresponding fullerene and triazafullerene molecules with about 100 per cent yield. We expect that this approach will allow the production of a range of other fullerenes and heterofullerenes, once suitable precursors are available. Also, if the process is carried out in an atmosphere containing guest species, it might even allow the encapsulation of atoms or small molecules to form endohedral fullerenes.

    G. Otero, G. Biddau, C. Sánchez-Sánchez, R. Caillard, M.F. López, C. Rogero, F. J. Palomares, N. Cabello, M. A. Basanta, J. Ortega, J. Mendez, A. M. Echavarren, R. Pérez, B. Gómez-Lor, J. A. Martín-Gago
    Nature 454, pp. 865-869
    Read more


Product image
Product description
Article No.
Channelplates set (1 pair MCP) for DLD detector

Spare channelplate set for 1D & 2D-DLD 100 & 2D-DLD 150. Not suitable for 1D-DLD 150

DN40CF 4-fold SMB Feedthrough for DLD

Spare electrical feedthrough for all DLD detectors. Connection flange for the ACU unit

Cu gasket for PHOIBOS 150

PHOIBOS 150 analyzer main flange gasket for Releases R5, R6, R7

Rotary feedthrough for IRIS

Replacement feedthrough for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

Spindle with Spur and Bevel Gear for Iris

Replacement spindle for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6 iris mechanism

Tubus 3 with Iris

Replacement iris mechanism for PHOIBOS Release R5 & R6



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